地理科学进展 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (3): 381-388.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.03.013

• 水文水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

白洋淀流域地下水更新速率

袁瑞强1, 龙西亭2, 王鹏3, 王仕琴4, 宋献方5   

  1. 1. 山西大学环境与资源学院,太原 030006
    2. 湖南省地质矿产勘查开发局四零二队,长沙 410014
    3. 江西师范大学鄱阳湖湿地与流域研究教育部重点实验室,南昌 330022
    4. 中国科学院遗传所农业资源研究中心,石家庄 050021
    5. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2014-08-01 修回日期:2014-12-01 出版日期:2015-03-25 发布日期:2015-03-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:袁瑞强(1980-),男,山西太原人,副教授,博士,主要从事流域水循环与水环境研究,E-mail: rqyuan@sxu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41301033);国家重点基础(973计划)项目(2010CB428805)

Renewal rate of groundwater in the Baiyangdian Lake Basin

Ruiqiang YUAN1, Xiting LONG2, Peng WANG3, Shiqin WANG4, Xianfang SONG5   

  1. 1. School of Environment and Resource, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
    2. The 402 Team, the Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Exploration of Hunan, Changsha 410014, China
    3. Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Wetland and Watershed Research, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, China
    4. Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, CAS, Shijiazhuang 050021, China
    5. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2014-08-01 Revised:2014-12-01 Online:2015-03-25 Published:2015-03-25

摘要:

受到水库拦蓄、抽水灌溉等人类活动的影响,白洋淀流域平原区河流断流,非承压含水层逐渐被疏干。下游的白洋淀无法得到河流和地下水的补给,时刻面临干涸。鉴于白洋淀对区域生态环境和气候有重要的影响,多次实施调水补淀工程。然而,白洋淀渗漏严重,调水补淀的效果不理想。为了保护白洋淀,亟需恢复地下水的可持续性,这首先需要查明地下水的更新能力。2009年,对白洋淀流域平原区地下水进行实地调查,并采集采集地表水和地下水水样共36个,分析其氚含量。利用线性插值法、吴秉钧法和连炎清法恢复了该地区降水氚含量的历史数据,结合数学物理模型估算了非承压地下水的更新能力。结果表明,氚含量较高的白洋淀水渗漏使得周边地下水氚含量增高。总体上,沿山区到淀区的方向非承压地下水更新速率逐渐由15.0%/a降低至4.0%/a。山前平原冲洪积扇区域是非承压地下水的主要补给区,平均更新速率达9.8%/a。冲积平原区域非承压地下水的平均更新速率仅为4.4%/a。为此,需要限制在冲积平原区域开采非承压地下水,以逐步恢复其更新速率,使其重新补给白洋淀。地下水的恢复过程可能较慢,但可从根本上解决调水补淀无法解决的干淀问题。

关键词: 白洋淀流域, 华北平原, 地下水, 更新能力,

Abstract:

Human activities, such as water storage in reservoirs and pumping for irrigation, reduce stream flows and deplete unconfined aquifer in the plain area of the Baiyangdian Lake Basin. Without recharges from rivers and groundwater, the Baiyangdian Lake faces the risk of drying up. Considering the impacts of the Baiyangdian Lake on the local environment, biodiversity, and climate, many projects of water transfer for the sustainability of the lake were implemented. However, the result are unsatisfactory due to considerable leakages in the lake. In order to preserve the lake, sustainable groundwater use should be achieved and therefore, it is necessary to study the renewal rate of unconfined groundwater. In this study groundwater was surveyed on the plain area of the Baiyangdian Lake Basin in 2009. thirty six samples from groundwater and surface water were collected for measuring the content of tritium. Tritium content in precipitation since the mid-1950s was rebuilt by comparing the results from linear interpolation, Wu's method and Lian's method. Renewal rate of groundwater in the plain area was estimated based on the tritium data and the well-mixed model. Results show that leakage of the lake slightly increased tritium content in the ambient groundwater. Generally, the renewal rate of unconfined groundwater decreased from 15.0 %/a to 4.0 %/a between the mountain area and the lake. Alluvial fans are the main recharge area with an average renewal rate of 9.8 %/a. The renewal rate dropped to 4.4 %/a in the alluvial plain. We recommend that groundwater development should be restricted in the alluvial plain to recover the renewal rate of unconfined groundwater. Although such recovery may take a long time to occur, it is believed that recharging the lake by shallow groundwater is the only way to maintain a sustainable lake.

Key words: Baiyangdian Catchment, North China Plain, groundwater, renewal rate, tritium