地理科学进展 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (3): 340-353.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.03.009

• 水文水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

大气水汽氢氧同位素观测研究进展——理论基础、观测方法和模拟

柳景峰1, 丁明虎1,2,3, 效存德1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室,兰州 730000
    2. 中国气象科学研究院极地气象研究所,北京 100081
    3. 国家气候中心雪冰—气溶胶分析实验室, 北京 100037
  • 收稿日期:2014-09-01 修回日期:2015-02-01 出版日期:2015-03-25 发布日期:2015-03-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:柳景峰(1984-),男,甘肃庄浪人,博士研究生,主要从事极地冰冻圈研究,E-mail: liujingfeng7732@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目(2013CBA01804);极地科学战略基金项目(201203015);国家自然科学基金项目(41206179)

Review on atmospheric water vapor isotopic observation and research: theory, method and modeling

Jingfeng LIU1, Minghu DING1,2,3, Cunde XIAO1,2   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Cryopheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanhou 730000, China
    2. Institute of Polar Meteorology, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
    3. National Climate Center, Snow-Ice-Aerosol Analyzing Laboratory, Beijing 100037, China
  • Received:2014-09-01 Revised:2015-02-01 Online:2015-03-25 Published:2015-03-25

摘要:

大气水汽氢氧稳定同位素是认识大气环流和水循环的重要信息指标,本文从影响水汽稳定同位素含量的物理过程入手,即源区蒸发、传输及凝结等方面,系统介绍了影响水汽氢氧稳定同位素的平衡分馏和动力分馏的理论基础;回顾了传统观测方法、近期发展的激光光谱仪及卫星遥感红外光谱仪等大气水汽同位素观测新手段,重点分析了光谱仪及遥感观测方法的优势及应用,表明实时观测和遥感监测成为目前水汽同位素研究的主要手段;总结了目前大气水汽同位素观测研究在同位素基础理论、地表过程等方面的主要进展,汇总分析了大气水汽同位素环流模型的发展和应用,表明同位素环流模型在全球及区域气候过程、古气候恢复以及环境信息重建方面具有独特的优势,将会成为今后气候系统研究的新方法;最后提出水汽同位素研究的新焦点即高时空分辨率的实时观测、氢氧同位素的新指标如过量17O以及同位素气候模型的发展完善及应用。

关键词: 大气水汽同位素, 同位素分馏, 水汽同位素观测, 水循环

Abstract:

Stable isotopes of atmospheric water vapor have been used as informational tracer in understanding global earth surface processes and hydrological cycle. Based on the physical process of water transportation, this article introduces the theoretical basis of water vapor isotopic fractionation, including equilibrant and non-equilibrant fractionation such as evaporation process, transportation, and considerations, and reviews traditional measurement methods and new techniques such as laser spectrometer and satellite remote sensing infrared spectrometer. It shows that real-time and remote sensing observations have become useful methods for water vapor isotope research. The paper also summarizes the main progresses on water vapor isotopic theory and the general/regional climate models enabled with isotopic module. Iso-GCM/RCM has advantages in global and regional climate process research and environmental information reconstruction, and will be widely used in future research. Emerging focuses of atmospheric isotope research are high spatiotemporal resolution measurement and application of new indices such as 17O-excess and Iso-GCM/RCM.

Key words: atmospheric water vapor isotope, isotope fractionation, water vapor isotope observation, water cycle