地理科学进展 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (1): 118-127.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.014

所属专题: 人地系统

• GIS应用 • 上一篇    

地理探测器在史前聚落人地关系研究中的应用与分析

毕硕本, 计晗, 陈昌春, 杨鸿儒, 沈香   

  1. 南京信息工程大学地理与遥感学院, 南京210044
  • 收稿日期:2014-09-01 修回日期:2014-11-01 出版日期:2015-01-25 发布日期:2015-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 毕硕本(1965-),男,山东潍坊人,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要方向为空间数据挖掘,三维可视化,E-mail:bishuoben@163.com。 E-mail:bishuoben@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41071253,41271410)。

Application of geographical detector in human-environment relationship study of prehistoric settlements

BI Shuoben, JI Han, CHEN Changchun, YANG Hongru, SHEN Xiang   

  1. School of Geography and Remote Sensing, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
  • Received:2014-09-01 Revised:2014-11-01 Online:2015-01-25 Published:2015-01-25
  • About author:10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.014

摘要: 遗址—河流距离是史前聚落遗址人地关系研究的重要内容。本文以河南省卢氏县为例,引入地理探测器模型,采用基于PD,H 值计算的连续性地理数据最优离散法,获取遗址—河流相关性定量数值,讨论和总结模型中等间距(EI)、百分位(QV)、自然断点(NB)、几何间隔(GI)4 种分类方法,分别在裴李岗时期、仰韶前期、仰韶后期、龙山时期所表现的性能及适用情况;并在此基础上揭示聚落的结构、发展规律、分布和范围规律。研究结果表明:①4个文化时期分别采用NB、QV、NB、GI及其分类数分别为8,8,8,6 时,为离水距离因子的最优离散。该因子对遗址密度分布的决定力分别为39.5%、70.8%、73.0%和59.8%;②洪水切割作用导致河岸两旁的阶地逐渐崩塌,阶地的面积越来越小,古人类为了赢得更多的生存空间,将遗址沿河散开呈条带装分布。当阶地面积小到一定程度,聚落沿河流长度扩展的成本过高,便开始向远离河流部分扩张,因此离河距离因子呈先升后降;③从Q 值提升强度看,NB/EI>GI>QV;从提升效率看,EI/GI>NB>QV;从决定力大小来看,GI>QV/NB>EI;④聚落结构由裴李岗时期的简单、稀疏和松散不断发展,分别在仰韶前、后期和龙山时期出现两极化、三段式,聚落发展影响因素由人口数量增长变为社会内部结构变化,聚落的分布和古人类活动范围距河流约正常人步行1~2.5 h 的距离,且不断扩大。

关键词: 地理探测器, 人地关系, 史前聚落, 遗址—河流距离

Abstract: In order to model the optimal discretization of site-river distance of prehistoric settlements and to obtain a quantitative characterization of the correlation between sites and river, this paper takes Lushi County of Henan Province as an example and uses the method of geographical detector for analysis. The model is to discrete the continuous geographic data based on the values. Based on this analysis, the paper discusses the performance of four classification methods (Equal Interval—EI, Quantile Value—QV, Natural Break—NB, and Geometrical Interval—GI) in the model for the Peiligang period, the Early Yangshao period, the Late Yangshao period, and the Longshan period. It then analyzes the structure, development pattern, distribution, and scope of the settlements for a better understanding of the human-environment relationship in prehistoric settlements from the perspective of societal organization and development state and cultural and behavioral patterns of humans in prehistoric time. The results show that: (1) Optimal discretization of site-river distance is realized using the classification method of NB, QV, NB, and GI with class number of 8, 8, 8, and 6 for the four periods. The power of this determinant for determining the density of sites is 39.5%, 70.8%, 73.0%, 59.8%; (2) Floods caused the terrace on both sides of the river to collapse gradually and reduced the area of the terrace. In order to gain more living space within the limited area, the sites dispersed along the river. When the terrace area became too small, dispersion along the river was too costly and the ancient settlements began to expand away from the river. Therefore the determining power of the factor of site-river distance first increased and then decreased. (3) In terms of improvement strength, NB/EI>GI>QV; in terms of improvement efficiency, EI/GI>NB>QV; in terms of the power of the determinant, GI>QV/NB>EI; (4) Settlement structure changed from simple, sparse, and loosely structured in the Peiligang period to polarized in the Early Yangshao period, then developed into a stage composed of three segments in the Late Yangshao period. The driving force of settlement development changed from population growth in the early stage to structural change of the society. Settlement distribution and human activities concentrated within 1~2.5 hours walking distance from the river and continued to expand. This is the result of waterborne disease aversion and reflects the ample supply of labor and food resources brought by the optimized division of labor in the society and possibly the invention of new technologies and tools.

Key words: geographical detector, human-environment relationship, prehistoric settlement, site-river distance