地理科学进展 ›› 2015, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (1): 64-72.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.008

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

中美巴印过去300年耕地时空变化的比较研究

李美娇1,2,3, 何凡能1,2, 肖冉1,2,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室, 北京100101;
    3. 中国科学院大学, 北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2014-10-01 修回日期:2015-01-01 出版日期:2015-01-25 发布日期:2015-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 何凡能(1963-),男,福建仙游人,研究员,主要从事历史地理与环境变迁研究,E-mail:hefn@igsnrr.ac.cn。 E-mail:hefn@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:李美娇(1989-),女,山西长治人,硕士研究生,主要从事历史土地利用/覆被变化等方面研究,E-mail:limeijiao0707@126.com。
  • 基金资助:
    全球变化研究国家重大科学研究计划项目(2010CB950901);国家自然科学基金项目(41271227)。

Characteristics of cropland change in China, the United States, Brazil and India over the past 300 years

LI Meijiao1,2,3, HE Fanneng1,2, XIAO Ran1,2,3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2014-10-01 Revised:2015-01-01 Online:2015-01-25 Published:2015-01-25
  • About author:10.11820/dlkxjz.2015.01.008

摘要: 本文利用长时间序列数据,对中、美、巴、印四国过去300 年耕地时空变化特征及驱动因素进行了比较分析。结果表明:①四国耕地总量在过去300 年均呈持续增长态势。中国和印度土地垦殖历史悠久,其中,中国在1700-1980s 耕地面积增加了68.21×104 km2,印度在1700-2000 年增加了131.28×104 km2,为中国的1.92 倍;美国和巴西虽然农业起步较晚,但发展迅猛,其中,美国在1700-1950 年的250 年间耕地面积增长了190.87×104 km2,分别是中国、印度增量的2.80 倍和1.46 倍;巴西在1700-2000 年增加了64.57×104 km2,其中近百年的增量为62.82×104 km2,超过了同期其他三国的增加量。②从空间格局变化特征看,近300 年来,中国和印度均是在已有耕地分布格局的基础上向高原及山地丘陵地区扩展;而美国在“西进运动”的影响下,耕地大规模向中西部拓殖;巴西随着向北西部开发的推进,北部、西部地区的耕地急剧增加。③过去300 年推动四国土地垦殖发展最直接的驱动因素是国家政策,但就根本驱动因素而言,中国和印度是人口,而美国和巴西则是国家财政;在农技发展取向方面,中国和印度选择了精耕细作以提高土地生产率;而美国和巴西则选择了机械化以提高劳动生产率。

关键词: 巴西, 耕地, 过去300 年, 美国, 区域比较, 驱动力, 印度, 中国

Abstract: Comparative studies of large-scale land use and land cover change (LUCC) of different countries can offer some insight into its historical evolution and driving forces, as well as providing relevant information on land- use regulation, adaptation to global climate change, and historical responsibility for carbon emissions. In the present study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial characteristics of LUCC in China, the United States, Brazil, and India over the past 300 years based on time-series population and cropland data. The results show an increasing trend in the cropland area in all four countries. The cropland area has increased by 68.21×104 km2 during 1700-1980s in China, 131.28×104 km2 during 1700-2000 in India, 190.87×104 km2 during 1700-1950 in the United States, and 62.82×104 km2 during 1900-2000 in Brazil, respectively. Characteristics of spatial expansion varied in the four countries. In China, the cropland mainly expanded to the border and hilly areas, and the same applied to India. In the United States, the cropland expanded widely into the mid-west because of the western exploration movement. In Brazil, the cropland mainly expanded to north and west because of the national development policies, but the cultivation intensity of south and southeastern Brazil also increased. Different driving forces were observed in the four countries. Population growth was the fundamental driving factor for China and India, while financial issues were the root causes of change in the United States and Brazil. With respect to the development of agricultural technology, intensive and meticulous farming was employed in China and India, while in the United States and Brazil, mechanization was the major means to improve productive efficiency in the past century.

Key words: Brazil, China, cropland, driving force, India, past 300 years, regional comparison, the United States