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PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY
 
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地理科学进展  2014, Vol. 33 Issue (12): 1666-1675    DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.12.010
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湖南省城镇空间时空压缩特征及其可视化表达——基于时空图分析模型
周恺(),钱芳芳(),邹宇
湖南大学建筑学院城乡规划系,长沙 410082
Visualizing time-space compression of urban system in Hunan Province:
Kai ZHOU(),Fangfang QIAN(),Yu ZOU
Department of Urban and Rural Planning, School of Architecture, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
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摘要 

本文构建了一个基于“时间-空间图(Time-Space Map)”的技术方法模型,用于分析交通网络建设给地理空间带来的时空压缩效应。现有基于可达性评价模型的“空间格局分析法”只能描述网络整体效率变化,而“等时圈分析法”局限于节点分析,两者都无法完整展现区域时空压缩。本文集成了网络大数据抓取技术、统计分析技术和可视化技术,通过绘制“时空图”实现区域时空压缩的可视化。首先,该方法利用网络大数据抓取技术,通过网络地图路径导航服务获取距离数据矩阵;然后,运用多尺度分析方法(Multidimensional Scaling),用通行时间(距离)取代欧氏距离计算求得最佳拟合空间,并对拟合误差进行估算和检验。最后,将拟合空间与地理空间在三维空间中叠加,观察和分析拟合空间的拉伸、延展、扭曲效果,总结区域时空压缩整体特点。在此基础上,以湖南省为案例绘制出了各地县级城市在现状公路网联系下的通行距离和通行时间时空图。研究验证了时空图在区域时空压缩格局可视化上的有效性和直观性,并在解读时空图集聚、偏移和皱起的基础上,提出改善省内公路网络可达性均衡的政策建议。

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周恺
钱芳芳
邹宇
关键词 时间—空间图多维尺度变换方法大数据交通可达性时空压缩可视化湖南    
Abstract

Measuring and analyzing the time-space compression phenomenon caused by improved road network accessibility in geographical space have been a major challenge for transport researchers. Current attempts of comparing accessibility pattern maps only describe centrality of nodes, and the isochrone approach is capable of analyzing individual cities but fails to provide a complete picture of regions of concern. This study developed an analytical model using time-space map to visualize time-space compression phenomenon, based on a synergy of current big-data available on the internet and statistical and 3D-visualization technologies. OD (Origin and Destination) data matrix (travel distance and duration by cities) was generated from web-map-server's direction API using web-crawling programs. Multidimensional scaling method was then applied to find the best-fit configuration space, which redraw the map by replacing the euclidean distance with network distance or duration. The scale and distribution of errors were statistically tested to verify the validity and reliability of the results. Finally, 3D time-space maps were visualized and overlapped with the geographical map to observe stretching, shrinking, and wrinkling effects of space caused by uneven transportation accessibility improvements. Using Hunan Province as a case, this study produced two time-space maps of travel distance and duration between cities, and analyzed the errors on these maps. The case study supports the view that time-space analysis is a valid method to visualize time-space compression and a useful tool to generate policy recommendations for building a more balanced road network with higher accessibility of regions.

Key wordstime-space map    multidimensional scaling    web big data    accessibility    time-space compression    visualization    Hunan Province
     出版日期: 2014-12-30
基金资助:国家教育部博士点基金项目(20130161120047);留学回国人员科研启动基金项目(20141685);湖南大学青年教师成长计划项目(2012-075)
作者简介: 周恺(1981-),男,湖南长沙人,助理教授,主要从事城市规划新技术应用和城市与区域分析研究,E-mail:zhoukai_nju@hotmail.com
引用本文:   
周恺,钱芳芳,邹宇. 湖南省城镇空间时空压缩特征及其可视化表达——基于时空图分析模型[J]. 地理科学进展, 2014, 33(12): 1666-1675.
Kai ZHOU,Fangfang QIAN,Yu ZOU. Visualizing time-space compression of urban system in Hunan Province:. PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY, 2014, 33(12): 1666-1675.
链接本文:  
http://www.progressingeography.com/CN/10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.12.010      或      http://www.progressingeography.com/CN/Y2014/V33/I12/1666
Fig. 1  现有时空图分析研究案例
Fig. 2  时空图分析方法
Fig. 3  湖南省地县级城市
Fig. 4  2~7维MDS分析结果的Stress检验
分析参数 网络距离时空图 时间距离时空图
数据 城市样本数 101 101
有效OD数据 5050 5050
叠加锚点 长沙、株洲
有效性检验 标准拟合误差σ值 0.00653 0.00734
拟合误差系数Stress-I 0.0807 0.08567
误差分析a 拟合误差平均值 +4.5 km +0.18 h
拟合误差标准差 31.3 km 0.47 h
95%误差范围b -58.2~+67.2 km -0.77~+1.12 h
拟合误差率τ平均值 +0.00% +0.00%
拟合误差率τ标准差 +12.93% +20.71%
95% τ值范围b -25.86%~+25.86% -41.42%~41.42%
Tab. 1  时空图分析拟合结果
Fig. 5  根据通行距离计算的时空图
Fig. 6  根据通行时间计算的时空图
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