地理科学进展 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (11): 1546-1555.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.011

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

20世纪中国耕地格网化数据分区重建

冯永恒1,2, 张时煌1, 何凡能3, 周兆媛1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2014-05-01 修回日期:2014-08-01 出版日期:2014-11-25 发布日期:2014-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 张时煌(1962-), 男, 江西南昌人, 副研究员, 主要从事环境与生态信息研究, E-mail:zhangsh@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:zhangsh@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:冯永恒(1991-), 男, 河南南阳人, 硕士生, 主要研究方向为土地利用/覆被变化, E-mail:fengyh.12s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371116);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA05110202)

Separate reconstruction of Chinese cropland grid data in the 20th century

FENG Yongheng1,2, ZHANG Shihuang1, HE Fanneng3, ZHOU Zhaoyuan1,2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2014-05-01 Revised:2014-08-01 Online:2014-11-25 Published:2014-11-25

摘要: 针对中国国家尺度层面耕地历史数据集的缺乏,提出了分区建模的方案.首先,将中国定性划分为四大区域,即传统农区、东北地区、西北地区、青藏地区;在此基础上,分别量化地形、人口要素与耕地分布之间的关系,构建空间格网化模型.利用该方案,重建了中国1913、1933、1950、1970、1990 和2000 年6 个时间断面空间分辨率为10 km的格网化耕地数据.对比1990 年的重建结果与遥感解译结果,发现无论是县域尺度,还是栅格尺度,数据集的准确性都较高.对重建的耕地数据集进行分析发现,近百年来中国的耕地面积出现先增后减的趋势,拐点大体在20 世纪后期,不仅是耕地总量的先增后减,而且垦殖强度也是先增后减,但区域之间并不一致,其中变化较大的是东北和西北地区.

关键词: 分区重建, 格网化, 耕地分布, 中国

Abstract: Many studies have demonstrated that land use and cover change (LUCC) has played a key role in global environmental change. The contemporary land cover is a result of human land use in the history. In order to simulate the LUCC's influence in climate and ecosystem, it is important to have a historical LUCC dataset, especially high- resolution land cover dataset. However, in China, such national coverage dataset is still missing, and this has limited the national environmental change simulations. So there is an urgent need to develop an effective way to reconstruct historical cropland distribution with high-resolution grids. Considering the complexity of the natural environment in China, in this study we developed a separate reconstruction method. First, we divided China into four regions based on a qualitative analysis: the traditional cultivated region, the northeastern region, the northwestern region, and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This division is mostly consistent with other recent studies except for the northwestern region, which differs slightly from common delineation. Second, in every region we examined the relationship between cropland distribution and various natural and human factors and built a reconstruction model. In the traditional cultivated region and the northeastern region, we found that elevation, slope, and population density were the main contributing factors to cropland distribution. In other regions, how-ever, population density was the sole significant contributing factor. This model was then used to reconstruct the cropland distribution of China in 1913, 1933, 1950, 1970, 1990 and 2000 at a spatial resolution of 10 km×10 km. By comparing the reconstruction result with remote sensing data interpretation for 1990, we found that the reconstructed cropland distribution data are reliable not only at the county scale, but also at the grid scale. The comparison between the reconstructed change and the remote sensing data-derived change from 1990 to 2000 also supports this view, that is, the separate reconstruction method developed in this study is effective for capturing cropland change over time. The reconstructed dataset indicates the follows. (1) In the northeastern region, the cropland area slightly decreased at the beginning of the People's Republic of China in 1949; up to 1970, the cropland area had recovered and the modern distribution pattern formed; thereafter, the Sanjiang Plain was brought into agricultural development gradually. (2) In Xinjiang in western China, the first cropland development climax appeared in the republican period influenced by the agricultural policy; the second climax appeared between the 1950s and the 1970s, but most of the cropland was distributed in the area of the Tianshan Mountains. (3) Change in cropland distribution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was not notable, but the area had increased much; the spatial distribution of cropland in the traditional cultivated region also did not change significantly, but the reclamation ratio has increased. In conclusion, cropland area in China had increased in the early 20th century and then decreased, and the inflection point was likely in the late 20th century. This trend occurred not only in cropland area, but also in reclamation ratio. However, the change varies in different regions and is more pronounced in the northeastern and northwestern regions.

Key words: China, cropland distribution, grid, separate reconstruction

中图分类号: 

  • K298.6