地理科学进展 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (11): 1512-1525.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.11.008

• 灾害研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

社会脆弱性概念、分析框架与评价方法

黄晓军1, 黄馨2, 崔彩兰1, 杨新军1   

  1. 1. 西北大学城市与环境学院, 西安 710127;
    2. 长安大学地球科学与资源学院, 西安 710054
  • 收稿日期:2014-05-01 修回日期:2014-08-01 出版日期:2014-11-25 发布日期:2014-11-25
  • 作者简介:黄晓军(1983-), 男, 黑龙江哈尔滨人, 博士, 讲师, 主要从事城市发展与城乡规划研究, E-mail:huangxj@nwu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41401138,41201106);教育部人文社科研究项目(12YJC790072);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目(2013G1271089);陕西省自然科学基金项目(2014JQ5195);陕西省教育厅人文社科研究项目(2013JK0099)

The concept, analytical framework and assessment method of social vulnerability

HUANG Xiaojun1, HUANG Xin2, CUI Cailan1, YANG Xinjun1   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China;
    2. College of Earth Science and Resources, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710054, China
  • Received:2014-05-01 Revised:2014-08-01 Online:2014-11-25 Published:2014-11-25

摘要: 社会脆弱性作为脆弱性的维度之一,是脆弱性与可持续性科学研究领域的新兴热点问题.在分析对国内外社会脆弱性研究文献的基础上,从概念内涵、分析框架与评价方法3 方面对社会脆弱性研究进行了评述.目前学者们对社会脆弱性概念有不同的理解,尚未形成统一的概念体系与内涵特征;系统性的社会脆弱性分析框架尚未形成,现有成果多是在脆弱性框架基础上的延伸和拓展,主要从政治经济学视角、社会—生态视角和综合视角开展研究;多元化的评价方法在社会脆弱性的应用研究中仍较少见,已有研究的评价指标体系尚不完善.未来,应进一步拓展社会脆弱性研究内容,促进多学科交叉融合;逐步统一社会脆弱性概念和分析框架,深化社会脆弱性的理论研究;加强社会脆弱性评价方法与指标体系的完善,促进多元化评价方法的应用;加强社会脆弱性减缓与调控对策研究,整合社会脆弱性与适应性框架,为提高社会适应能力与可持续发展提供科学依据.

关键词: 分析框架, 概念, 评价方法, 社会脆弱性

Abstract: Vulnerability is a concept that evolved out of the social sciences and was introduced as a response to the purely hazard-oriented perception of disaster risk in the 1970s. Recently, the study about social vulnerability of human system and coupled human-environmental system has become increasingly more popular in the field of vulnerability research and sustainability science. The concept of social vulnerability aims at identifying and understanding which groups of people may be more sensitive and susceptible to the impacts of natural disasters and why. In this article, we discuss the progress of social vulnerability research and review the concept, characteristics, analytical frameworks, and assessment methods of social vulnerability. This article first reviews definitions of social vulnerability from different types of stresses including risk and hazard, climate change, demographic characteristics and inequality, resource exploitation, land use change, and environmental pollution. Social vulnerability is one dimension of vulnerability. Social vulnerability refers to negative impacts of social system exposed to natural or human factors due to its own sensitivity characteristics and lack of ability to cope with adverse disturbance. Second, this article introduces several analytical frameworks of social vulnerability from political economy, social-ecological system, and comprehensive perspectives. These frameworks include the Pressure and Release Model, Sustainable Livelihood Framework, Hazards-of-Place Model, Coupled Human–Environmental System Framework, BBC Conceptual Framework, and MOVE Framework. Strictly speaking, these frameworks are not specialized social vulnerability framework, and most of them were derived from vulnerability frameworks. Some researchers improved and applied them to explain elements, process, and mechanism of social vulnerability. The article compares critical rationale of different frameworks and reviews their merits and defects from three perspectives. At last, the article summarizes assessment methods, computational formulas, and evaluation index systems of social vulnerability. The methods include comprehensive index, function model, back propagation artificial neural network, decision tree, object- oriented analysis, spatial multi criteria evaluation, and GIS methods. Every method has different features and advantages and disadvantages. The choice of method should be based on research purposes. There are also many kinds of evaluation index systems and social vulnerability indexes such as the SoVI, CVI, CCSVI, SV, and so on. Most studies use population and relevant social and economic indicators to establish evaluation index systems. However, there are many questions about the validity and reliability of index systems. Generally, current studies on social vulnerability have the following problems: a unified conceptual and analytical framework has not been formed; assessment methods of social vulnerability are too simplistic; a comprehensive evaluation index system is absent; studies on mitigation and countermeasures are insufficient. In the future, social vulnerability study needs to establish a unified concept and analytical framework, expand the research contents, improve theoretical system, and promote multi-disciplinary integration. At the same time, it is necessary to improve evaluation index system and method of social vulnerability, strengthen research on social vulnerability mitigation and countermeasures, and integrate social vulnerability and social adaptation. We hope social vulnerability research can provide the scientific basis for social adaptability and sustainable development.

Key words: analytical framework, assessment method, concept, social vulnerability

中图分类号: 

  • TU981