地理科学进展 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (6): 825-834.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.06.011

• 气候与环境变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于RWEQ的20世纪90年代以来内蒙古锡林郭勒盟土壤风蚀研究

巩国丽1,2, 刘纪远1, 邵全琴1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2014-02-01 修回日期:2014-04-01 出版日期:2014-06-25 发布日期:2014-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘纪远(1947- ),男,上海人,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事资源、环境及生态遥感研究,E-mail:liujy@igsnrr.ac.cn。 E-mail:liujy@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:巩国丽(1985- ),女,山西平遥人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为土壤侵蚀,E-mail:gongguoli00@163.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家重大科学研究计划(973)项目(2014CB954302);国家“十二五”科技支撑计划项目(2013BAC03B04);国家重点基础研究发展计划(973)项目(2009CB421105)。

Wind erosion in Xilingol League, Inner Mongolia since the 1990s using the Revised Wind Erosion Equation

GONG Guoli1,2, LIU Jiyuan1, SHAO Quanqin1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2014-02-01 Revised:2014-04-01 Online:2014-06-25 Published:2014-06-25

摘要: 土壤风蚀是中国北方地区重要的生态环境问题。锡林郭勒盟位于中国干旱、半干旱地区,是中国北方典型风蚀区,其特殊的地理位置又使得本区成为华北重要的生态屏障,为此锡林郭勒盟全区均划入了京津风沙源治理工程区。为了更好地阐明锡林郭勒盟的土壤风力侵蚀过程,指导区域的荒漠化防治,,基于气象、遥感数据,利用RWEQ模型定量分析了20 世纪90 年代以来锡林郭勒盟的土壤风蚀时空格局,揭示土壤风蚀的主要影响因素。研究表明:锡林郭勒盟多年平均土壤风蚀量为3.39 亿t。土壤风蚀强度以微度和轻度为主,主要集中在植被较好,风蚀力较低,降雨量较高,雪被覆盖地表时间较长的东、中部地区以及南部地区。侵蚀强度为中度以上的侵蚀区集中在苏尼特右旗、正镶白旗和正蓝旗的浑善达克沙地;90 年代以来,锡林郭勒盟的土壤风蚀强度总体上呈减弱趋势,主要与风场强度的减弱,植被盖度等的变化有关。土壤风蚀多发生于风蚀力较大的春季,风蚀强度较大区域的春季植被盖度与风蚀量呈显著负相关(r>0.7,p<0.01),且近20 年植被盖度提升有效降低了该区域的土壤风蚀。

关键词: RWEQ模型, 风蚀力, 土壤风蚀, 锡林郭勒盟, 植被盖度

Abstract: Soil wind erosion is a major ecological environment problem in northern China. Xilingol League is located in the arid and semiarid areas. As one of the areas suffering from most serious wind erosion in northern China, its ecological environment is very fragile. Because of this environmental fragility, the area was included in the Beijing-Tianjin Dust Storms Sources Control Project that was officially approved by The State Council and implemented in 2002. In order to better understand the status of soil erosion and guide the regional desertification prevention, it is necessary to assess the variation of soil erosion and reveal the influences of weather and vegetation on soil erosion in Xilingol. In this study, based on wind speed, temperature, precipitation and other meteorology data, the normalized difference vegetation index, snow coverage and other remote sensing data, the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ), which takes Newton's first law of motion as the foundation, was applied to evaluate annual soil losses caused by wind erosion. The results show that: The average soil erosion in Xilingol League between 1990 and 2010 was 0.34 billion tons. The intensity of soil wind erosion is low in most parts of Xilingol—these areas were mainly concentrated in the eastern, central and southern areas, where vegetation coverage is higher, wind erosion forces is lower, and rainfall is abundant. The areas with medium and higher intensity of erosion were mainly distributed in the Hunshandac desert of Suninteyou Banner, Zhengxiangbai Banner and Zhenglan Banner, where the soil is highly prone to wind erosion. Since the 1990s, soil erosion in Xilingol showed a deceasing trend. The reduction of wind erosion intensity is related to the weakened wind energy and improved vegetation cover. Wind erosion forces is the main driving factor of wind erosion—soil erosion was significantly correlated with the wind erosion forces (r=0.95, p<0.05). Wind erosion in Xilingol occurred frequently in windy springs. At this time, the effect of soil erosion associated with low vegetation coverage is most significant. Soil erosion was significantly correlated with the spring vegetation coverage in regions of higher wind erosion forces (r>0.7, p<0.01). Increased vegetation coverage effectively reduced soil wind erosion of the region in the recent 20 years. Low vegetation coverage makes the prevention of soil erosion more difficult and improving the grassland condition, especially in the spring season, is the key to controlling wind erosion of the soil. The RWEQ model was mainly used in the farmlands of the United States and cannot be directly applied in the grassland areas of China. In order to better apply the model in grasslands, the soil particle content was converted into the US system, surface roughness was measured by the roller chain method and withered vegetation coverage (obtained by photos) was introduced to replace flat residues on the surface of the soil. Even so, more research is needed to solve problems such as the influence of relief on soil wind erosion, the determination of noneroding boundaries, among others.

Key words: RWEQ model, soil wind erosion, vegetation cover, wind erosion forces, Xilingol League

中图分类号: 

  • P951