地理科学进展 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (6): 756-764.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.06.004

• “第8届京区地理学研究生论坛”获奖论文专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市居住空间分异背景下青少年成长的邻里影响——以广州市鹭江村与逸景翠园为例

孙瑜康1, 袁媛2   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京 100871;
    2. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院, 广州 510006
  • 收稿日期:2014-04-01 修回日期:2014-06-01 出版日期:2014-06-25 发布日期:2014-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 袁媛(1976- ),女,浙江绍兴人,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,主要从事城市地理、城市规划与设计研究,E-mail:yyuanah@163.com。 E-mail:yyuanah@163.com
  • 作者简介:孙瑜康(1988- ),男,山东莱阳人,硕士生,主要研究方向为城市与区域规划,E-mail:sunyukang521@126.com。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41071106)。

Neighborhood influences on adolescent development under the background of urban residential space differentiation:a case study of Lujiang Village and Yijing Community

SUN Yukang1, YUAN Yuan2   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    2. College of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China
  • Received:2014-04-01 Revised:2014-06-01 Online:2014-06-25 Published:2014-06-25

摘要: 城市居住空间分异是现代城市社会阶层分化导致的普遍现象,西方许多研究证明这种特定人群集中居住的邻里会对其中的青少年的成长产生多方面的影响。本文以广州市鹭江村和逸景翠园社区为例进行对比研究,探究中国城市中不同邻里对居住在其中的青少年成长的影响。在此将邻里特征分为社会经济特征、家庭教育观念特征、同龄人交往特征、机构资源特征4 个方面,运用logistic 回归分析发现,上述4 个方面的邻里特征确实会对青少年的成长产生影响,其中社会经济特征对青少年的学习成绩有影响,家庭教育观念特征影响青少年的教育表现与心理状态,同龄人交往特征则对青少年性格有重要影响,机构资源特征会影响青少年发展机会的获得。而邻里影响的作用机制可以用Jencks等的邻里机构资源模式和群体社会化模式来解释。

关键词: 机构资源, 居住空间分异, 邻里影响, 青少年成长, 群体社会化

Abstract: In recent years, with the rapid urbanization and economic and social transitions, social class stratification began to emerge in China, and residential space differentiation in Chinese cities has become increasingly apparent. Chinese scholars have started to examine the residential space differentiation phenomenon and its effects. Using survey data and in-depth interviews, this research explores the effects of neighborhood characteristics on adolescent education and development, taking Lujiang Village and Yijing Community in the haizhu district of Guangzhou as cases. Neighborhood characteristics include its socioeconomic, institutional resource, education concept, and peer interaction characteristics. The development results of teenagers include aspects such as learning ability, psychological states, personality and future development opportunities. Based on the selected variables, this paper uses a logistic regression model to analyze the relationship between the variables. At first, the research preliminarily determines whether the independent variables affect the dependent variable according to the results of model analysis. It then uses data from the questionnaire survey and interviews in the two communities to confirm whether the results of model analysis are consistent with the actual situation. This study shows that these four aspects do have various degrees of effects on adolescent education and development. Firstly, neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics affect the adolescents' learning ability. Parents who live in a highly educated, affluent and prestigous neighborhood have more experience and can spend more time and money on their children's education. Secondly, the education concepts and behavioral characteristics of families affect the adolescents' psychological states. More communication between parents and children and emphasis on the children's education make the relationship between the children and their parents more harmonious and reduce stresses of children. By comparing similar poorly educated families in two different communities, this research found that the poorly educated families living in the upscale neighborhood are obviously affected by the highly educated families—they share similar education concepts and adopt similar behaviors, and their children have similar development results. The same is true for the poor neighborhood, Lujiang Village. Thirdly, peer interaction characteristics affect adolescents' personality. Teenagers living in poor communities face more intense relationships and are more marginalized and they are more easily bullied by other teenagers, leading to their introverted character and more negative emotions. Lastly, institutional resource characteristics affect the adolescents' development opportunities. High quality of teaching, good facilities and rich campus activities increase the probability of students to enter key middle schools. The mechanism of neighborhood effects can be explained by the neighborhood institutional resource model and the collective socialization model put forward by Jencks and Mayer. In the institutional neighborhood resource model, neighborhoods affect the development opportunities of adolescents by providing different qualities of public services such as schools and sports facility. In the collective socialization model, neighborhoods influence adolescents' values, personality and behaviors and habits by affecting families' concepts and behavioral characteristics and interpersonal relationships between peers.

Key words: adolescent development, group socialization, institutional resource, neighborhood influence, residential space differentiation

中图分类号: 

  • TU984