地理科学进展 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (1): 134-144.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2014.01.015

• 产业与区域发展 • 上一篇    

中国物流企业的布局特征与形成机制

王成金1,2, 张梦天1,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京100101;
    2. 路易斯安那州立大学地理与人类学系, 巴吞鲁日70803, 美国;
    3. 中国科学院大学, 北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2013-02-01 修回日期:2013-07-01 出版日期:2014-01-25 发布日期:2014-01-22
  • 作者简介:王成金(1975- ),男,山东沂水人,副研究员,主要从事交通地理与区域发展研究,E-mail:cjwang@igsnrr.ac.cn。
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院地理资源所“一三五”战略科技计划项目(2012QY004);中国科学院重点部署项目(KZZD-EW-06-02);国家自然科学基金项目(41171108)。

Spatial pattern and its mechanism of modern logistics companies in China

WANG Chengjin1,2, ZHANG Mengtian1,3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Department of Geography and Anthropology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge 70803, USA;
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2013-02-01 Revised:2013-07-01 Online:2014-01-25 Published:2014-01-22

摘要: 物流企业指从事物流活动的经济组织,对支撑流通领域的经济活动和社会经济系统的高效运转具有战略意义。在评述国内外研究进展的基础上,选择中国1855 家A级物流企业为样本,从宏观区域、省级政区和城市等多层尺度,刻画和分析中国物流企业的布局特征,包括总体格局、空间集聚、覆盖水平等,并从多种角度考察了物流企业布局的形成机制。研究发现,物流企业分布呈现明显差异,沿海地区多于内陆且形成“2:1”比例关系,东部明显多于中西部且呈现“5:2:1”比例关系,省际之间呈现“南多北少”的格局,东南沿海省份尤其江浙两省集聚;物流企业的城市非均衡布局更突出,形成集聚和稀疏地区。经济和产业结构、产业集群、对外开放与国际贸易、交通区位、物流规划与政策等方面的差异是促使物流企业布局形成分异的重要因素。本文可为中国物流企业的布局优化和物流活动组织提供一定参考。

关键词: 空间布局, 物流企业, 形成机制, 中国

Abstract: Logistics company is an economic entity to specialize in organization and operation of logistics activities and has a strategic significance in supporting various economic activities of circulation field and effective operation of the whole social-economic system, even impacting the reorganization of regional spatial structures. However, review articles in the literature show that for a long time most scholars only pay attention to the distribution features or spatial modes of logistics companies at the city scale and organization mode of logistics operational network at the regional or national scale, due to the limit of data collection and methodology, but the distribution patterns of logistics companies and the dynamic mechanisms at the national scale are seldom investigated. Particularly, the number of logistics companies has been increasing explosively since the end of 1990s in Mainland China. For this purpose, in this paper, we choose 1855 A-level logistics companies, rated by the government authority by various criterions over the past seven years, as the study samples, from the spatial scales of region, province and city, to describe and analyze the spatial features of the logistics companies in China, including the overall pattern, spatial centralization, coverage and spatial differentiation. And we explore the dynamic mechanisms of spatial disparities of logistics companies' distribution from the multi aspects. The results show that there are obvious spatial distribution disparities among the logistics companies in China. The coastal region has more logistics companies than inland region and their numbers show a "2:1" ratio. Interestingly, the eastern region also has obvious larger number than central and western regions, with "4:2:1" ratios. Generally, the southern provinces have more logistics companies, and the northern, northeastern, northwestern and southwestern provinces have fewer. Furthermore, the southeast coastal provinces especially Jiangsu and Zhejiang have the most companies. The spatial disparity of logistics companies' distribution among the cities seems to be more significant, showing clear separation of aggregation regions and sparse regions. The logistics companies not only are concentrated in the provincial capitals and economic centers, but also cover a large number of prefectural-level cities, even extending into many counties. More interestingly, South Jiangsu, Shanghai, South Anhui and Zhejiang have a large number of logistics companies and large coverage of various cities. But in each province, logistics companies are mainly located at the capital city and important economic centers and port cities. Logically, this spatial pattern is determined by the various factors combined. The results also show that the economic scale and industrial structure (among eastern, central and western regions, or between northern and southern regions), opening up and international trade, location and transport condition become the important factors to influence the spatial differentiation of logistics companies' distribution. It`s noteworthy that the development of a large number of local and specialized industrial clusters and private economies promotes the emergence and centralized distribution of logistics companies in Zhejiang and Jiangsu. More strikingly, the logistics planning and support policies made and provided by local governments also profoundly influence the development and flourish of logistics market and companies, especially in the coastal region and large cities of central and western regions. Theoretically, this distribution disparity among logistics companies generates different supporting capabilities for each region to operate the socio-economic system effectively. This research can provide a guidance to optimize the distribution of logistics companies and organize the logistics activities.

Key words: China, development mechanism, logistics company, spatial distribution

中图分类号: 

  • K902