地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (12): 1845-1860.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.013

• 理论与方法探讨 • 上一篇    

地理学编史方法论:从实证主义到思想史

孙俊1,2, 潘玉君2,3, 武友德4, 孟雪梅1   

  1. 1. 云南师范大学社会发展学院, 昆明 650500;
    2. 云南师范大学旅游与地理科学学院, 昆明 650500;
    3. 云南师范大学教育部民族教育信息化重点实验室, 昆明 650500;
    4. 云南师范大学华文学院, 昆明 650500
  • 收稿日期:2013-03-01 修回日期:2013-10-01 出版日期:2013-12-25 发布日期:2013-12-25
  • 作者简介:孙俊(1985-),男,云南泸西人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为地理哲学、地理学史、民族地理与区域发展。E-mail:TSWwiththinkwithgp@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(40761001,41261033);国家哲学社会科学基金项目(BHA100058);科技部创新方法工作项目(2007FY140800);中国科技协会项目“当代中国地理学家学术谱系研究”。

Change of historiographical methodologies in geography:From positivism to intellectual history

SUN Jun1,2, PAN Yujun2,3, WU Youde4, MENG Xuemei1   

  1. 1. College of Social development, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China;
    2. College of Tourism and Geographical Sciences, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China;
    3. Key Laboratory of Educational Information for Nationalities, Ministry of Education, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China;
    4. Yunnan Chinese Language and Culture College, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China
  • Received:2013-03-01 Revised:2013-10-01 Online:2013-12-25 Published:2013-12-25
  • Contact: 潘玉君(1965-),男,黑龙江齐齐哈尔人,教授,博导,主要从事区域发展、理论地理学等研究。E-mail:13888346995@139.com E-mail:13888346995@139.com

摘要: 基于编史学方法论对地理学史进行考察,在回顾地理学史研究进展,尤其是方法论的基础上,通过分析实证主义和思想史两类编史方法论的文本,力图阐明:① 实证主义地理学史侧重于以实证主义方法论为叙事模式,具有普遍主义、进步主义、辉格主义、欧洲中心论的色彩,所涉及的社会文化因素并未对地理学知识内容及其性质产生实质影响,地理学是“百川归海”式的发展,空间性并不重要,是一元传统的理性主义进路;② 思想史方法论立足于地理学在时间和空间上的差异性,按公平性、对称性的原则进行叙事,揭示了古代地理学阶段地理知识的文化特征,以及社会文化的差异性对地理学知识内容和性质的影响,时间性和空间性均是重要的,从而形成了多元比较史的、实践史的进路。在后历史的层面上,实证主义编史方法论的强纲领叙事模式值得商榷,其主要贡献是建构了基于实证主义方法论的地理学进化史,其不足方面是弱化了社会文化多样性对地理学发展的影响及其对应的不同时空中地理知识的内容和性质特征。因此,基于地理学编史学视角得出以下结论:① 地理学史是一项建构性的事业,具有明显的相对性;② 地理学史编史应注意将地理学置于语境中以获得解释;③ 地理学史的建构应坚持非强纲领原则。

关键词: 编史方法论, 地理学史, 实证主义方法论, 思想史方法论

Abstract: This historiographical article examines the ways by which geographers wrote about the history of geography in the past and provides suggestions for the future. We refer to the actual history of geography as "HG1" and the writings of historians about the history as "HG2". The essence of historiography of geography is to examine how HG1 record, explain HG2 in its places and times rather than it "should be" today. There are three types of historiographical methods in HG2: (1) positivism historiography, such as The Nature of Geography, All possible words: A history of geographical ideas, an "essentialist" historiography which postulates what geography is as a science "in essence", and construct geography's history base on this approach; (2) constructivism historiography, such as the contributions by Trevor J. Barnes, who insisted that geography is constructed by society; (3) historical contextualism historiography, emphasized by British historian of geography, Robert J. Mayhew, who drew on the ideas from so-called "Cambridge school" scholars, such as Michael Oakeshott and Quentin Skinner, etc., and the aim is to think how to write the histories of geographies, rather than history of geography. Both Robert J. Mayhew and Charles W. J. Withers insisted that geography was so different in different places and different times, implying that we should avoid an inevitable or progressive "essentialist" historiography which postulates what geography is as a science "in essence". Of course, historical contextualism historiography has been related to the works in China such as From dynastic geography to historical geography: A change in perspective towards the geographical past of China (in English) and From chaos to order: Palaeoid geographical thought in China (in Chinese), published by Xiaofeng Tang. Tang thinks that the history of Chinese geography should be concerned with the past for its own sake, which means in this context the ways by which Chinese geography was understood at the time, rather than the ways by which it can be understood in the light of the present-day practice of the discipline. So, Tang constructed the history of dynastic geography and explained it from the perspectives of Chinese ancient culture, words and concepts. The thought has been inherited by his student, Sheng Pan, in his doctoral thesis, Ideas, system and interest in the geography of the Sung dynasties (Peking University, 2008). Based on the discussions, we suggest that an effective way for the progress of historiography is to make a choice among these methods, and we think positivism historiographical method is a good choice for modern history; historical contextualism historiographical method is beneficial to ancient and early modern history, especially to non-western or non-Anglophone places like China.

Key words: histories of geographies, historiographical methodologies, intellectual methodology, positivistic methodology