地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (12): 1804-1813.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.009

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

厦门城市居民住房资源分层及其形成机制

肖黎姗1,2, 郭青海1,2, 李新虎1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院城市环境研究所中国科学院城市环境与健康重点实验室, 厦门 361021;
    2. 厦门市城市代谢重点实验室, 厦门 361021
  • 收稿日期:2013-05-01 修回日期:2013-10-01 出版日期:2013-12-25 发布日期:2013-12-25
  • 作者简介:肖黎姗(1984-),女,助理研究员,主要从事城市地理、环境经济与环境管理研究。E-mail:lsxiao@iue.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371540,41201155);厦门市科技计划项目(3502Z20122001);中国科学院重点部署项目(Y3I0381C90)。

Urban residents’ housing stratification and its driving mechanism in Xiamen City

XIAO Lishan1,2, GUO Qinghai1,2, LI Xinhu1,2   

  1. 1. Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, CAS, Xiamen 361021, China;
    2. Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021, China
  • Received:2013-05-01 Revised:2013-10-01 Online:2013-12-25 Published:2013-12-25
  • Contact: 李新虎(1978-),男,副研究员,主要从事城市化、城市环境变化与公共健康研究。E-mail:xhli@iue.ac.cn E-mail:xhli@iue.ac.cn

摘要: 住房资源分异是社会分层的重要标志。本文调查了厦门市居民住房资源基本情况,结果表明,住房制度改革后,住房产权形式多样化,公房仍然是住房分配体系的重要来源。产权的拥有几率随收入、教育和家庭规模等因素存在递进式的增长,与居民对自身社会地位的认同存在正向的反馈作用。在此基础上,本文对住房分层的产生机制进行了分析。宏观数据的聚类分析表明,不同收入水平的住房消费分化且持续加剧,与住房改革进程保持一致。通过构建结构方程模型,研究住房产权与收入,教育和职业之间的耦合关系,收入对住房产权的效应最大,其次为教育程度,职业和家庭规模的影响最小。收入和产权共同对受访者自身社会地位的自我认同产生直接效应。收入与职业产生交互作用进一步表明,住房资源的分化既有经济因素,也有制度因素。本研究通过定量分析住房资源分化表现形式,分析其产生机制及效应,丰富了社会分层模式变迁的理论和实证,为深入住房制度改革提供科学依据。

关键词: 结构方程模型, 社会分层, 厦门市, 住房产权, 住房制度改革

Abstract: China has undergone an institutional transition from welfare-oriented to market-oriented housing allocation system since the year of 1978. Housing reform was closely related to social change and economic reform. Thus, it has significant influences on socioeconomic conditions. Housing resource is an important indicator of social stratification. In this paper, Xiamen City is selected as a research area. The city incorporates a variety of residential patterns in different periods including transitional communities with local characters, post-reform communities, commercial communities and city villages. The housing resource data was obtained by spatial sampling and survey. We conducted a field study with 1075 face to face questionnaires. More than ten years after the housing allocation system was stopped, housing ownership was characterized with diversity in terms of income, education, family size and occupation. The empirical results showed that people have various sources to obtain houses. Commercial house in real estate was the primary housing source, accounting for 56% of the residents with house ownership. Public house was ranked as the second source, accounting for 33.4%, which was still an important source after the housing reform due to path dependence. The logistic regression results showed family income, education and family size, multiplied, increased the probability of housing ownership which has positive feedback to self-identification of social status. Income and occupation have positive feedback to housing resource. For non-public economy unit job holders and high income group, they have more opportunities to access the public houses at a lower price, and gained more profits in the real estate market. This paper explored the driving mechanism of the housing stratification by using time series and cross-section data. The housing reform process was divided into four stages. The cluster analysis indicated the housing expenditure gap among low income, median income and high income groups, increased during the housing reform process. But the time series data didn't verify the cause-and-effect relationship. Structural equation model using cross-section data was further used to verify the relationship between housing ownership and its influencing factors. Family income has strong effect on the probability of housing ownership, followed by education, while occupation and family size have least effect. Income and housing ownership in turn have direct effect on self-identification. The interaction between income and occupation indicated that housing resource stratification resulted from economic and institutional factors. After housing reform, the house distribution system should consider the housing gap induced by economic status and occupational prestige and expand the coverage of welfare housing. Current housing resource was still influenced by the previous distribution system. And residents have flexible choices on residential location and housing resources, which would accelerate the complexity of urban changes. This research quantified the current situation of housing resource stratification, and then further analyzed its mechanism and effects. The research in this paper has enriched the theory of social stratification, and provided scientific evidence for the sustainable housing reform.

Key words: housing ownership, housing reform, social stratification, structural equation model, Xiamen City