地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (12): 1793-1803.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.008

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

晚清以来上海市建成区边界扩张过程与特征

尹昌应, 石忆邵, 王贺封   

  1. 同济大学测绘与地理信息学院, 上海 200092
  • 收稿日期:2013-08-01 修回日期:2013-10-01 出版日期:2013-12-25 发布日期:2013-12-25
  • 作者简介:尹昌应(1981-),男,贵州遵义人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为城市地理信息工程、可持续城市空间形态。E-mail:changying.yin@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    教育部高等学校博士点专项科研基金项目(20110072110053)

Process and characteristics of boundary expansion of built-up area of Shanghai City since the late Qing dynasty

YIN Changying, SHI Yishao, WANG Hefeng   

  1. College of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
  • Received:2013-08-01 Revised:2013-10-01 Online:2013-12-25 Published:2013-12-25
  • Contact: 石忆邵(1963-),男,湖南邵阳人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事城市与区域经济、土地资源管理方面研究。E-mail:shiyishao@tongji.edu.cn E-mail:shiyishao@tongji.edu.cn

摘要: 利用多源历史地图资料和遥感影像数据,首先在地理信息系统软件ArcGIS Desktop 10.01 和遥感图像处理软件ERDAS Imagine 2011 支持下提取上海市自1842 年以来近170 年间的建成区边界数据序列;然后通过Fragstats4.1 软件计算城市边界的分形维数和近圆指数,来度量城市边界扩张的复杂性,借助ArcGIS Desktop 10.01 软件进行扇形分区统计,以识别城市边界向东、西、南、北等8 个方位扩展的方向性特征,用“亲水性”表征黄浦江和吴淞江对城市边界扩展的吸引力;最后基于上述指标分析上海城市形状演变的历史过程及其特征,并结合历史文献资料讨论导致上海城市形状演变的社会变革因素。结果表明:① 分形维数和近圆指数均随时间推移呈“M”型趋势变大。改革开放是上海城市形状变化的分界点,此前城市沿黄浦江、吴淞江呈狭长形或椭圆形,此后则逐渐向团状方向演变;② 城市边界在不同历史时期呈“单向型”或“全向型”延伸。改革开放以前城市边界随机地向单一方向延伸且速度较慢,改革开放以来则向各个方向延伸,总体上以浦西的延伸速度最为显著;③ 随着陆上交通条件不断发展,黄浦江和吴淞江对城市边界扩展的引力作用在不断减弱;④ 城市边界的复杂性和方向性变化随着历史演进呈现出显著的阶段性特点,主要受不同历史时期的社会形态与经济发展水平驱动。

关键词: 城市扩张, 城市形状, 地理信息系统, 历史过程, 上海市, 遥感

Abstract: Urban form is defined as a figure presentation of spatial pattern of city's external shape, and, together with urban pattern and urban morphology, constitutes the three subjects at different levels in the research field of urban morphology. Current studies on this subject ignored the identification of the growth process from sprouting, growth, maturity, to ageing, and its impacting factors such as historical, political and social structure. Urban form is the lowest level in the urban morphology field. However, it has a very close relationship with urban growth process and the influence factors, it is an important knowledge basis for further understanding urban pattern and urban morphology, and it is also beneficial to grasping the expansion process of the boundary of urban built-up areas and making rational measures to control the trend of urban growth. Furthermore, coastal cities that sprouted in the estuarine always have unique growth characteristics different from others cites, because of their dependence on waterway transportation in early times. For example, early urban expansion nearby a port may be related to estuaries, rivers i.e., and the correlation would weaken in the process of social and economic development. How to quantitatively describe this evolution process and influence factors? This is a question that still needs to be further discussed by using new methods and defining new spatially related indices. Therefore, based on multi-type historical maps and multi-temporal remote sensing images, this paper first employs geographic information system (GIS) software ArcGIS Desktop 10.01 and remote sensing (RS) images processing platform ERDAS Imagine 2011 to extract the information of built up area boundary of Shanghai from 1842 to present, a 170-year time period, and secondly, calculates the fractal dimension (FD) and related circumscribing circle (RCC) of built-up area boundary by Fragstats 4.1 software to measure the complexity of urban boundary expansion, use ArcGIS Desktop 10.01for statistical analysis of the fan-shaped areas of built-up area expansion in different directions such as East, West, South, North, to identify the directional characteristics, and define an index urban hydrophilic property (UHP) to express the attraction of Huangpu River and Wusong River to built-up area boundary extension. All of these metrics finally are used for analyzing the historical evolution process and characteristics of the built-up area boundary of Shanghai City. In addition, with the reference to the historical literature, this paper discusses the impact of social transformation on the urban form evolution of Shanghai. The results show that: (1) FD and RCC of urban boundary showed a rise pattern of "M"; (2) urban boundary expansion showed a "single-direction" or "full-direction" mode during different historical periods; (3) the attractive effect of Huangpu River and Wusong River on built-up area boundary expansion has weakened due to the development of public transport system on the land; (4) complexity and directions of urban built-up area boundary showed significant stage characteristics along with the historical evolution process, which is mainly driven by different levels of social and economic development in the historical periods. The conclusion of the study is of reference value to Shanghai government in planning a more sustainable urban form in the future, and also makes a significance contribution to the extension of the theories and methods of urban morphology study.

Key words: GIS, historical process, remote sensing, Shanghai City, urban expansion, urban form