地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (12): 1732-1741.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.12.002

• 第十四届全国青年地理工作者学术研讨会专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于复杂网络的商业银行网点布局特征——以北京市中国银行为例

甄茂成1, 张景秋2, 杨广林2   

  1. 1. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京 100048;
    2. 北京联合大学应用文理学院, 北京 100191
  • 收稿日期:2013-10-01 修回日期:2013-11-01 出版日期:2013-12-25 发布日期:2013-12-25
  • 作者简介:甄茂成(1989-),男,安徽合肥人,硕士生,主要研究方向为城市地理、城市与区域规划。E-mail:824459958@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271185);北京市属高等学校长城学者培育计划项目(IDHT20130322)。

Characteristics of commercial bank branch networks based on complex networks theory:A case study on Bank of China in Beijing

ZHEN Maocheng1, ZHANG Jingqiu2, YANG Guanglin2   

  1. 1. College of Resource, Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China;
    2. College of Arts and Science, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100191, China
  • Received:2013-10-01 Revised:2013-11-01 Online:2013-12-25 Published:2013-12-25
  • Contact: 张景秋(1967-),女,甘肃兰州人,博士,教授,主要从事城市地理、城市与区域规划研究。E-mail:jingqiu@buu.edu.cn E-mail:jingqiu@buu.edu.cn

摘要: 以北京城区6 个行政区内分布的中国银行网点为例,利用复杂网络理论,按照就近原则,分别构建服务半径400 m和800 m的网点分布复杂网络模型,并结合GIS 空间可视化技术对其进行网络特征分析与解释。结果表明:① 银行网点结构多呈现扁平化,联系稀疏,具有小世界网络特征。由于缩短了网络的特征路径长度,增强了聚类系数,在提升网点效率的同时,也提升了市场竞争的激烈程度。② 随着服务半径的扩大,银行网点集聚程度增强,而稳定性降低。银行网点的最佳服务半径在400~800 m,步行可达的网点网络比公交可达的网点更稳定。③银行网点分布存在区域差异性。一方面表现为高等级节点在局部区域出现高集聚现象,主要位于四环以内,并集中分布在金融街、三元桥和国贸CBD一带;另一方面表现为节点度之和在街道层面存在较大差异,内城经济发达的街道,其网点多且节点度高,而外围街道,特别是近郊外围街道网点分布少,或者没有网点,存在金融排斥现象。未来在银行网点规划中,可重点培育一些边缘节点,发挥其带动作用,扩大网点覆盖范围,完善整个区域网点服务职能。

关键词: 北京, 复杂网络, 空间布局, 商业银行, 网点特征

Abstract: Complex network theory, combined with social network technology, has been more and more widely used in the researches and applications related to realistically existing large irregular networks to find the rules of network operations and to improve operation efficiency. In human geography research, using complex network technology to analyze city economic activities can help improve the analysis and interpretation of the pattern, and the change of the pattern, of the distribution of geographic phenomena to a certain extent, and can be applied to the studies of the essential characteristics of geographic networks. In this paper, taking Bank of China as an example, using the theory of complex network and with the principle of proximity, based on data of bank branch distribution networks in the six administrative districts of Beijing, we constructed a complex network model of bank branch distribution networks with the service radius of 400 meters and 800 meters, and used GIS spatial visualization technology to analyze and interpret the network characteristics. The research shows that: (1) the bank branch networks showed a flat structure with sparsity and small world network characteristics. The flat management pattern of the bank branch networks shortens the length of typical routes, which enhances the clustering coefficient, improves network efficiency, and at the same time increases intensifies the degree of the market competition. (2) The convergence of the layout of bank branch distribution increases with the expansion of the service radius, and stability decreases. For bank branch spots in the network, best service radius is 400 meters to 800 meters; the network spots accessible by walking are more stable than the network spots accessible by public transportations. Specifically, for the bank branches with service radius less than 400 meters, since the sharing of the customers is weak, and also faced with the challenges of increasing land rent and intensifying competition, they should community-focused bank branches in order to enhance the cohesion and competitiveness of each community area. However, for the bank branches with service radius less than 800 meters, the increase of the length of typical routes causes the increase of the cost of the process and the decrease of operation efficiency. Therefore, the bank branches should diversify service features, improve the area's networking degree, enhance the survivability, and improve stability. (3) The bank branch distribution exhibit area differences. The high level nodes are showing high level of agglomeration in the areas within the 4th beltway, mainly concentrated in Financial Street, Sanyuanqiao, China World Trade Center, and CBD area. On the other hand, the node degrees show big differences at the street level. For example, on the streets of well-developed inner city areas, the network and node degree are high, while on the other streets, especially the streets close to suburban areas, there few bank branch networks, or even no nodes, indicative of financial exclusion. In the future the network planning should focus on cultivating a number of edge nodes to play leading roles, expanding the network coverage, and improving the area network service functions.

Key words: Beijing, commercial bank, complex network, network characteristics, spatial distribution