地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (11): 1602-1611.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.11.003

• 产业经济与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于SBM-Undesirable模型的1997-2010年中国公路运输效率评价

杨良杰1,2, 吴威2, 苏勤1, 蒋晓威3, 卫云龙4   

  1. 1. 安徽师范大学国土资源与旅游学院, 芜湖 241003;
    2. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008;
    3. 南京大学环境学院江苏省农村环境保护与生态修复工程中心, 南京 210046;
    4. 安徽农业大学经济管理学院, 合肥 230036
  • 收稿日期:2013-06-01 修回日期:2013-09-01 出版日期:2013-11-25 发布日期:2013-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 吴威(1976- ),男,安徽歙县人,副研究员,主要从事区域经济与运输地理研究。E-mail: wudp1976@163.com E-mail:wudp1976@163.com
  • 作者简介:杨良杰(1989- ),男,安徽宿松人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为区域经济与运输地理。E-mail:734064811@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271137)

Evaluation of road transport efficiency in China during 1997-2010 based on SBM-Undesirable model

YANG Liangjie1,2, WU Wei2, SU Qin1, JIANG Xiaowei3, WEI Yunlong4   

  1. 1. College of Territorial Resources and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241003, China;
    2. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China;
    3. Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Rural Environmental Protection and Ecological Remediation, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046, China;
    4. College of Economic and Management, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China
  • Received:2013-06-01 Revised:2013-09-01 Online:2013-11-25 Published:2013-11-25

摘要: 引入非期望产出评价模型SBM-Undesirable,并基于时空演变的视角,对1997-2010 年中国公路运输效率进行了分析。结果表明:① 1997-2010 年间中国公路运输效率水平整体偏低,且效率水平呈波动下降趋势,其中2008 年表现较为突出;② 公路运输负外部效应产出降低了中国公路运输效率的整体水平,而纯技术效率的变化则是影响公路运输综合效率变化的主要因素;③ 中国公路运输效率存在着较为显著的区域差异性,经济发展水平较高的东部地区运输效率较高,经济发展水平较低的中西部地区运输效率较低,且这种差异性有不断扩大的趋势;④ 在空间视角上,中国公路运输效率均衡性趋于降低,近年来由相对均衡逐步向非均衡甚至极化趋势发展;⑤ 提高资源利用效率、优化资源配置能力、减少负外部效应产出和增加运输有效产出是改善运输效率的重要途径。

关键词: SBM-Undesirable模型, 非期望产出, 公路运输效率, 时空演变, 中国

Abstract: Road transport is an important foundation for the development of a modern economy in accelerating the velocity factor of production, and plays an important role in promoting regional integration process. Thus transport efficiency has become an important index for road transport service evaluation. With the implementation of the sustainable strategy, China's economic growth will undergo a transition from extensive to intensive. It will require more efficient road transport and an optimized development mode. To make objective, fair and accurate comprehensive evaluation, different aspects of road transport efficiency during a certain period of operation are examined, including investment in highway facilities, transportation facilities, output of highway passenger, and efficiency of implementing comprehensive measurements of the functions of cargo transportation. High performance of highway transportation system means finding root causes of a potential problem in a timely fashion, facilitating quick solutions, and putting forward countermeasures. This article introduces undesirable outputs to build a road transport efficiency evaluation model, which uses the kilometers of highways, number of road transport employees, number of vehicles owned by road transport operators, and energy consumption by road transport as the indicators of investment made by provinces in road transport, uses the amounts of cargo and passenger turnovers in the scales of provinces and the municipalities directly under the central government as the indicators of desired output, and considers negative externalities of road transport output, such as road congestion, environmental pollution, traffic accidents, ecological damage as the results of undesirable outputs. In this article, using SBM-Undesirable model, we attempted to evaluate road transport efficiency from 1997 to 2010, describe the changes of road transport efficiency from a time perspective, and find ways to overcome the road transport inefficiencies. The results showed that: (1) The overall level of road transport efficiency in China is low, and it showed a fluctuating downward trend between 1997 and 2010, especially more prominent in 2008. (2) The negative external effects of road transport output reduce the overall level of efficiency. The change of pure technological efficiency is the main factor that affects the changes of overall road transport efficiency. (3) There are significant regional differences in road transport efficiency in China. Road transport efficiency in eastern region with higher level of economic development is also higher, while the transport efficiency in mid-west region with lower level of economic development is lower, and this difference shows a growing trend. (4) From the spatial perspective, the equilibrium of road transport efficiency in China tends to decrease, and it is gradually changing from relatively balanced state to unbalanced state, even to a polarized state in recent years. (5) The important approaches that could improve transport efficiency consist of improving resource utilization efficiency, optimizing resource allocation capability, reducing the negative external effects of output, and increasing the effective output of transport. In this article, due to limited availability of relevant data, the negative external effects of outputs only include road transport accidents and road transport carbon dioxide emissions for analysis and evaluation. In addition, the mechanism of changes of road transport efficiency is unclear.

Key words: road transport efficiency, SBM-Undesirable model, spatio-temporal evolution, undesirable output