地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (10): 1535-1544.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.10.011

• 气候与环境变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原冰芯重建古气候研究进展分析

朱大运1, 王建力1,2   

  1. 1. 西南大学地理科学学院, 重庆 400715;
    2. 西南大学三峡库区生态环境教育部重点实验室, 重庆 400715
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-01 修回日期:2013-07-01 出版日期:2013-10-25 发布日期:2013-10-24
  • 作者简介:朱大运(1984- ),男,博士研究生,主要研究方向为冰川变化、地貌环境。E-mail: zhudayun163@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    高等院校国家二类地理科学特色专业建设研究项目(2011JY004)。

Progress in palaeoclimate research on the Tibet Plateau based on ice core records

ZHU Dayun1, WANG Jianli1,2   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
  • Received:2013-04-01 Revised:2013-07-01 Online:2013-10-25 Published:2013-10-24
  • Contact: 王建力(1969- ),男,教授,博士生导师,主要从事自然地理学研究。E-mail: wangjl@swu.edu.cn E-mail:wangjl@swu.edu.cn

摘要: 冰芯是重建古气候重要的信息载体,因具有分辨率高、保真性强、信息量大、时间尺度长等优点而成为研究热点。中国自1986 年在祁连山敦德获取第一支冰芯起,相继在青藏高原地区钻取了古里雅、马兰、达索普、普若岗日、东绒布等冰芯。本文重点回顾和总结了利用上述冰芯重建古气候的研究成果,分别论述了冰芯作为信息载体反映古气候的主要指标,包括氧同位素与温度、冰芯积累量与降水、大气气溶胶与古环境、微量元素与古环境、冰芯包裹体与古环境,以及冰芯内微生物与古环境的关系等。青藏高原地区冰芯对过去一些极端气候事件、中世纪暖期、小冰期、冰期—间冰期旋回、厄尔尼诺事件、太阳活动规律,以及工业革命以来的全球气候变暖均有不同程度的响应,但纬度差异导致青藏高原地区的响应机制有别于南北极地区;并进一步对比说明了受不同季风系统影响的冰芯在重建古气候上的异同。最后,基于当前研究状况,就加强多学科交叉与创新、新技术应用与代用指标开发、冰芯记录影响因素评估及量化模型构建等未来需要深入的研究方向进行了展望。

Abstract: Ice core is an important information carrier to reconstruct paleoclimate. Because of its high resolution, high fidelity, huge amount of information and long time scale, it has become a research hot spot. Since the first ice core was found in Qilian Mountain in 1986, in China many other ice cores have been successively drilled in Tibet Plateau, such as Guliya, Malan, Dasuopu, Puruogangri, Dongrongbu and so on. In this paper, we provided a review and summary of study results with the ice cores mentioned above, and discussed the approaches and indicators of ice cores as information carriers reflecting paleoclimate, shown as follows. (1) The significant corresponding relationship between Oxygen isotope and temperature: Oxygen isotope shows a positive correlation with temperature though it is affected by "amount effect of precipitation water" in the southern part of the Tibet Plateau. (2) The relationship between accumulation of ice core and precipitation: accumulation of ice core can be used as a direct record of glacial precipitation, and, at the same time, the amount of accumulation indicates climate change in the past. (3) The relationship between atmospheric aerosols and climate environment: the climate environment reveals the changing history of atmospheric aerosols and helps understand the geomorphological evolution and intensity changes of atmospheric circulation of the surrounding areas on the Tibet Plateau in the past. (4) The relationship between trace elements and paleoclimate: trace elements can be used to explore the connection between ice core records and solar active rhythm. It also indicates the influence of industrial pollution on glacier environment in the high altitude. (5) The relationship between ice core inclusions and paleoenvironment: ice core inclusions are the complete preservation of ancient atmosphere, and can be used for comparing and reconstructing the ancient atmospheric composition from different historical stages and reflecting the information of environmental changes of this region in the long time. (6) The relationship between microorganisms in the ice core and the ancient environment: microorganisms in the ice core record the response to the environmental change in the past through its own unique biological characteristics. Microorganisms of different depths reflect the environmental conditions in different periods. Then, we presented the response of the ice core in Tibet Plateau to paleoclimates, including some extreme climate events in the past, the Medieval Warm Period, the Little Ice Age, glacial-interglacial cycles, ENSO events, solar activity patterns and global warming since the Industrial Revolution, but the Tibet Plateau's response mechanism is not the same as that of polar regions. It has its own characteristics. We also explained the similarities and differences of the ice core in the reconstruction of paleoclimate under the influence of different monsoon systems because of the mutual influences of Indian monsoon, East Asia monsoon and the west wind on the Tibet Plateau. Finally, based on the current research status, we presented in-depth discussions on the prospects of the research such as: strengthening innovation in interdisciplinary studies, use of new technologies, development of alternative indicators, influence of the ice core record on factor assessment, creation of quantitative models, and other future directions.