地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (10): 1520-1534.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.10.010

• 旅游地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

国内外民族社区研究综述

李亚娟1,2,3, 陈田1, 王开泳1, 王婧1,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院, 北京 100875;
    3. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-01 修回日期:2013-06-01 出版日期:2013-10-25 发布日期:2013-10-24
  • 作者简介:李亚娟(1987- ),女,河南许昌人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为旅游地理。E-mail: liyj.11b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(41171435);国家自然科学基金地区科学基金项目(41361033)。

Review of ethnic community research

LI Yajuan1,2,3, CHEN Tian1, WANG Kaiyong1, WANG Jing1,3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2013-01-01 Revised:2013-06-01 Online:2013-10-25 Published:2013-10-24
  • Contact: 陈田(1958- ),男,安徽安庆人,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事城市地理和旅游地理研究。E-mail: chent@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:chent@igsnrr.ac.cn

摘要: 以少数民族为居民主体的社区是一种特殊的社区类型。作为民族社会的重要构成单元,社区内独特的民族性、文化性和地域性日益成为国内外学者关注的重点。文章首先回顾了国外民族社区研究的历史起源,总结了城市民族社区的研究重点,并对乡村民族社区的影响、类型、变迁、旅游和感知研究进行详细的归纳总结;国内民族社区研究则从内涵、演变、发展以及旅游影响研究4 个重点领域进行进展分析。在以上研究的基础上,从研究领域、研究方法、研究对象、研究理论基础和研究内容5 个方面将国内外民族社区研究进行对比,并提出,国内民族社区研究亟需加强民族社区演化的影响因素、动态演化机制、居民生计方式、文化遗产保护与利用、经济结构协调、村落空间形态演变和整合开发以及可持续发展政策等7个方面的研究。

Abstract: A community with an ethnic minority group as the majority of the residents is a special type of community. The unique nationality, culture and regionalism within ethnic communities attract the attentions of researchers at home and abroad. This paper first reviews the origin and the history of ethnic community research abroad, summarizes the key areas in urban ethnic community research, and discusses rural ethnic community research from the aspects such as influences, types, transitions of the communities, and tourism and perception studies. Domestic ethnic community research mainly includes the studies on connotation, evolution, development and impact on tourism. This paper compares the differences between the research at home and abroad in terms of field, method, object, theoretical basis and content. (1) From research field aspect, domestic studies focus on community types, influencing factors, spatial structure and development, from ethnologic, sociological and geographic perspectives, while the studies abroad emphasize on organization, social formation and social problem, from micro perspective of sociology and anthropology; (2) From research method aspect, majority of domestic studies adopt quantitative analysis and mathematical models, together with questionnaire, statistical information and satellite image. Foreign research is prone to study power center and relations between communities by using qualitative analysis of sociology, psychology, political economics; (3) From research object aspect, domestic studies pay more attention to rural ethnic communities, while development of urban ethnic communities is a key research area abroad, especially communities of different races within mega cities; (4) Foreign studies utilize the classical theory of typology and then expands to functionalism theory, human ecology theory, urban theory and the theory of community rights. Domestic studies adopt differential pattern theory with local characteristics based on the functionalism theory; (5) From research content aspect, domestic studies value connotation, influence factors, evolution features (traditional culture, land use, livelihood and language, etc.), tourism development and tourism impact research. Foreign researches study the education, medical treatment, employment, health, conflicts and crime problems of different races within an ethnic community. As discussed above, domestic research on ethnic community emphasizes on geographic and historic factors and pays less attention to social-cultural and political factors; the perspective hasn't been transformed from nature oriented to economy and society oriented. The research paradigm still lies at the level of spatial analysis and hasn't been shifted toward humane direction. The existing studies rest on the geographical concept of "community", focus on a single community, and ignore the communication and development between communities. Meanwhile, the studies lack in-depth analysis on residents' development from policy-making perspective. Finally, this paper puts forward seven future focuses for domestic ethnic community research, including, (1) factors influencing ethnic community evolution, (2) dynamic evolution mechanism, (3) residents' livelihood, (4) cultural heritage conservation and utilization, (5) economic structural coordination, (6) spatial form evolution and integrated development, (7) policy making for sustainable development.