地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (10): 1501-1510.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.10.008

• 旅游地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于社会宏观与个体微观视角的入境旅游流驱动模式

郑鹏   

  1. 郑州大学旅游管理学院, 郑州 450001
  • 收稿日期:2013-05-01 修回日期:2013-06-01 出版日期:2013-10-25 发布日期:2013-10-24
  • 作者简介:郑鹏(1980- ),山西长治人,博士,讲师,主要从事旅游市场开发研究。E-mail: zhengpeng511@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271158,41271157);国家旅游局面上项目(13TAAG020);教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(13YJCZH176);河南省教育厅人文社科项目(2012-ZD-099);河南省教育厅科学技术研究重点项目(13B630360,13A630028)

Driving force model for inbound tourist flow from macroscopic and microcosmic perspectives

ZHENG Peng   

  1. School of Tourism Management, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
  • Received:2013-05-01 Revised:2013-06-01 Online:2013-10-25 Published:2013-10-24

摘要: 旅游流是现代旅游业发展所依赖的客观前提,也是旅游学研究的核心问题之一。入境旅游流作为一种大规模人口流动的地理现象和社会现象,其驱动力研究有着复杂性和多面性的特征。通过对国内外相关文献的梳理,发现学者们多从自身固有的专业背景出发研究旅游流的驱动力,归结起来可分为社会宏观视角与个体微观视角。在对社会宏观与个体微观两种视角下入境旅游流驱动的错位性和互补性进行辨析后,本文构建了双重视野下的入境旅游流驱动模式。模式认为,从个体微观方面审视,旅游者受到的心理动机驱动主要有"核心吸引"、"设施环境"、"求知求异"和"健康社交";从社会宏观视角探究,旅游流受到的属性耦合驱动主要有"旅游资源"、"地区经济"、"交通区位"和"接待能力"。这一研究过程不仅考虑到了综合性因素,也探究了不同研究视角所存在的错位性特征,以期更加全面系统地了解中国入境旅游流驱动力。

关键词: 个体微观, 驱动模式, 入境旅游流, 社会宏观

Abstract: Tourist flow is the premise of tourism industry and one of the key issues in tourism research. Currently, research on tourist flow is mainly focused on spatial and temporal characteristics and diffusion of inbound tourist flows, and the driving forces of tourist flows have yet to be investigated. As a social phenomenon, tourist flow is one type of mass population movement, and its driving forces are complex and multifaceted. From literature study, we have found that the scholars view the driving forces of tourist flows differently, based on their own professional background, and it boils down to the two perspectives: macro and micro. Yet, in the process of understanding the world, the results we obtain are incomplete if we exclude certain ways or perspectives. If we only rely on annual statistical data at the tourist destinations, a macroscopic point of view, we will likely fall into mechanical materialism. If we only use survey data to analyze the driving forces of tourist flows, a microcosmic point of view, then we will be lost in the abyss of the personal opinions. In social sciences, humans are both social objects and social subjects; people abide to the dominant social laws, but may also take initiatives. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct the research on the driving forces of inbound tourist flows from both angles: destinations and the tourists. In light of the disparity and complementation between the two perspectives, we have built a so-called double-vision driving force model for inbound tourist flows. From the macroscopic view, inbound tourist flows are driven by the social factors at tourist destinations. From the microcosmic view, inbound tourist flows are driven by the factors at the individual level, including personal motives, sensation and the other factors. The study has not only taken into account the comprehensive factors, but also explored the differences between the two perspectives. This model emphasizes the integration of the macroscopic and microcosmic perspectives, and also highlights the differences between the two perspectives, including "tourism resource", "economy", "traffic", "service" and "key attractions", "facility and environment", "knowledge and novelty", "social and health". This study is helpful for more comprehensive and systematic understanding of the driving forces of inbound tourist flows.

Key words: driving force model, inbound tourist flow, macroscopic, microcosmic