地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (5): 733-742.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.05.005

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市紧凑性测度指标研究及典型城市分析——以南京、苏州建设用地紧凑度为例

燕月1,2, 陈爽1, 李广宇1,2, 余成1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,南京 210008;
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2012-07-01 修回日期:2012-12-01 出版日期:2013-05-25 发布日期:2013-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 陈爽(1968-),研究员,博士生导师,主要从事城市生态与人居环境等研究.E-mail: schens@niglas.ac.cn E-mail:chyw@pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:燕月(1988-),山东济南人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为城市土地利用与生态影响.E-mail: yanyuejn@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院知识创新重要方向项目(KZCX2-EW-315).

Urban compactness index and its application: Compactness of built-up areasin Nanjing and Suzhou

YAN Yue1,2, CHEN Shuang1, LI Guangyu1,2, YU Cheng1,2   

  1. 1. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2012-07-01 Revised:2012-12-01 Online:2013-05-25 Published:2013-05-25

摘要: 量化表征城市紧凑性是当前地理学界和规划领域共同关注的热点问题,明确紧凑性指标反映的实际意义与适用范围,成为构建测度体系的关键.当前已有众多研究提出数量相当可观的量化指标,本文结合国内外城市紧凑性定量研究进展,根据表征紧凑内涵的不同将其归纳为形状、规模、密度、结构、功能和过程6 类,分析了不同类型指标的适用范围,并以结构类指标为例,采用南京和苏州的实际建设用地数据,根据指标自身稳定特性识别的实用性和局限性,达到评判和筛选指标的目的.结果显示:指标能有效指示建设用地的实际空间结构特征;4 个指标受尺度变化的影响不强烈,具有良好的应用性能,其中Gini 系数和Moran’s I 在应用中,前提条件局限小,适用广泛;而连续度和向心度较直观,但在进行城市比较研究时限制条件较多.该研究结果能够为城市紧凑性量化研究提供一定的借鉴,并指导城市规划与管理政策制定.

关键词: 测度, 城市紧凑性, 尺度变换, 格网, 南京, 苏州, 指标适用性

Abstract: As compact cities are being promoted in sustainable development policies in many countries, including the developing regions, research on urban compactness is still hampered by the lack of consensus on its meaning and negligence of the applicability of the indicators for compactness measurement. In this paper, we aim to clarify the confusions in the selection of indicators and their applications. Firstly, we introduced recent studies on the measurement of compactness from six different perspectives: shape, size, density, structure, function and process, and discussed the applicability of each individual indicator. Then, by analyzing the practicability and limitation of specific structural indicators based on their stability in reaction to the change of grain size, we evaluated the existing methods for the selection of evaluation indicators. Sample results from the cities of Nanjing and Suzhou showed that four selected indicators don't have so strong reactions to scale change, which qualifies them for reliable measurements. These results serve as a reference to the measurement of compact cities and provide guidance for urban planning and decision-making of management policies.

Key words: grain, indicators' applicability, measurement, Nanjing, scaling, Suzhou, urban compactness