地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (2): 170-180.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.02.003

• 农村发展与土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于生计视角的异质性农户转户退耕决策研究

张佰林1,2, 杨庆媛1, 苏康传3, 王兆林4, 冯应斌4   

  1. 1. 西南大学地理科学学院, 重庆400715;
    2. 中国农业大学土地资源管理系, 北京100193;
    3. 昆明市国土规划勘察测绘研究院, 昆明650220;
    4. 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆400715
  • 收稿日期:2012-02-01 修回日期:2012-05-01 出版日期:2013-02-25 发布日期:2013-02-07
  • 通讯作者: 杨庆媛(1966-),女,教授,博士生导师。E-mail:yizyang@swu.edu.cn E-mail:yizyang@swu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:张佰林(1987-),男,博士研究生,主要从事土地可持续利用研究。E-mail:zhangbailin135@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    教育部人文社会科学研究项目(07JA630024);重庆市科学技术委员会重点项目(2010CE0014)。

Heterogeneous households’decision on household registration transfer and farmland relinquishment: From livelihood perspective

ZHANG Bailin1,2, YANG Qingyuan1, SU Kangchuan3, WANG Zhaolin4, FENG Yingbin4   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China;
    2. Department of Land Resources Management, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China;
    3. The Kunming Land Planning & Surveying and Mapping Institute, Kunming 650220, China;
    4. School of Resources and Environmental Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
  • Received:2012-02-01 Revised:2012-05-01 Online:2013-02-25 Published:2013-02-07

摘要: 对重庆市贫困与生态脆弱区的云阳县、石柱土家族自治县376 户农户调研基础上, 将农户划为纯农户、农业主导户、非农主导户和弃农农户, 基于生计视角对农户转户退耕决策进行了解释。结果表明:①重庆市农户兼业普遍, 兼业是农户重要的生计策略;从纯农户到弃农农户, 农户生计资产依次递增, 尤其是人力资产、金融资产和社会资产。②随着兼业程度提高, 农户生计策略逐渐多元化。纯农户生计高度依赖土地;农业主导户开始选择非农兼业;非农主导户生计多样化指数最高;弃农农户生计已经转移到非农产业。③生计是影响农户转户退耕决策的关键因素:纯农户生计资产匮乏, 决策受政策导向明显;作为理性经济人, 对土地经济收益的依赖使农业主导户转户退耕意愿不明显, 对政策响应平淡;非农主导户将权衡转户退耕的补偿与损失, 政策响应模糊;弃农农户资产丰富, 对转户退耕决策响应积极。基于户籍制度改革和可持续生计视角, 本文提出了理性政府行为的3 大对策, 即:建立转户退耕的社保及补偿、激励机制;基于农户生计视角, 实施各种工程措施及惠民政策, 促进农户生计策略多元化;针对不同区位的农户实施差别化的政策。

关键词: 户籍制度改革, 理性政府, 生计策略, 生计资产, 退耕, 重庆市

Abstract: In this paper, the decision on household registration transfer and farmland relinquishment is expounded through the discussion of the features of different households' livelihoods. Rural households are classified into full farm households, dominant farm households, non-dominant farm households and non-farm households, based on a survey of 376 households in Yunyang County and Stalagnate Tujia Nationality Autonomous County of Chongqing. The data were collected in October and November, 2010, using PRA (participatory rural appraisal) method. The results show that, (1) The level of concurrent business activities of the households is high in Chongqing, with non-farm income being the most important characteristics of the households' economic activities; Households' livelihood capital increases from full farm households to non-farm households in terms of labor, finance and social capital; Environmental capital is an important driving force of households' non-farm livelihood. (2) Households' livelihoods strategy has been diversified with the increase of the level of their concurrent business activities. Full farm households' livelihood is highly dependent on the land; dominant farm households begin to do some non-farm concurrent business activities; non-dominant farm households' livelihood is the most diversified; Non-farm households have set feet on construction, service and many other non-farm business. (3) Based on Efficient Market Hypothesis, the households are regarded as“rational people”, and their livelihoods (availability of capital) are considered as a key factor impacting their decisions on farmland transfer or relinquishment. In details, the full farm households, as short of capital, make their decision under the obvious influence of the governmental' guidance and are considered not fully rational; Dominant farm households show little response to the policy, due to their dependence on economic benefit of the land; Non-dominant farm households show vague response to the policy because they would judge and weigh the gain and loss of household registration transfer and farmland relinquishment; Non-farm households, possessing the most capital, response to the policy actively as rational decision-makers. From the perspectives of household registration system reform and farmers livelihoods, this article proposes rational behaviors for the government.

Key words: Chongqing, farmland relinquishment, household registration reformation, livelihood capital, livelihood strategy, rational government