地理科学进展 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (1): 87-94.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2013.01.009

• 气候与水文 • 上一篇    下一篇

石羊河中游径流损耗特征及其影响因素

刘海猛, 石培基, 周俊菊, 刘海龙, 孙会慧   

  1. 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院, 兰州 730070
  • 收稿日期:2012-08-01 修回日期:2012-10-01 出版日期:2013-01-25 发布日期:2013-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 石培基(1961-),男,甘肃临洮人,教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向城市与区域发展。E-mail: shipj@nwnu.edu.cn E-mail:shipj@nwnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:刘海猛(1989-),男,山东淄博人,硕士生,主要研究资源环境与区域可持续发展。E-mail: smartjingfeng@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40971078,41271133);甘肃省自然科学基金项目(1107RJZA104)。

Characteristics and influencing factors of runoff consumption in the midstream of Shiyang river

LIU Haimeng, SHI Peiji, ZHOU Junju, LIU Hailong, SUN Huihui   

  1. College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
  • Received:2012-08-01 Revised:2012-10-01 Online:2013-01-25 Published:2013-01-25

摘要: 以石羊河中游为研究区域,分析了1956-2009年的径流损耗特征,通过相对损耗率和Fisher最优分割法等确定了人类活动对径流损耗的显著影响拐点为1975年,明确了人类活动影响下的径流突变点,修正了当前研究的不足。根据人类活动对径流影响的方式及强度,将近50多年的径流损耗划分为4个阶段,定量与定性相结合分析了1956-2009年不同代际的自然因素和人文因素对径流损耗的影响量和贡献率。结果表明:人类活动对石羊河中游径流损耗的影响于20世纪70年代中期以后显著增加;2000年之前人文因素贡献率不断增加,自然因素贡献率相应减少,且自然因素影响量与出山径流显著相关。20世纪90年代以来,人类活动与自然过程导致的径流损耗贡献率持平,1995-1999年人类活动影响量达到6.33亿m3/a,上游来水量的 62.31%被人类直接消耗,此时径流损耗的人文因素贡献率达最大值71.52%;之后开始逐渐降低,表明近年来石羊河中游人水系统矛盾有趋于缓和的迹象。

关键词: 径流损耗, 石羊河中游, 突变点, 相对损耗率, 影响因素

Abstract: The runoff of some rivers in the world, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions, has decreased remarkably with climate change and intensive human activities of the development of society and economy. This paper analyzes the characteristics of annual mountainous runoff and runoff consumption in the midstream of Shiyang river in the past 50 years. Using Fisher classification method and relativistic consumption rate, a major inflection point has been identified to be the year of 1975, during which human activities started to have significant influences on runoff consumption in the midstream of Shiyang river. The inflection point is clarified to be a point of significant change of runoff consumption caused by human activities, as opposed to the change of natural runoff, which is an improvement to the current research. Based on the types of human activities and the strength of the influences, the trend of runoff consumption in more than 50 years is divided into four stages; the contributions of human activities and natural changes o the influences on the runoff consumption in each stage from 1956-2009 are analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results indicate that, generally speaking, prior to 2000 the contribution of human activities gradually increases; the contribution of natural changes decreases. Natural contribution is significantly correlated with mountainous runoff. Since mid-1970s, the contribution of human activities on the runoff consumption has increased significantly in the midstream of Shiyang river. In 1990s the influences of human activities and natural changes on the runoff consumption reach an equal level. Quantitatively speaking, from 1956 to 1999, the contribution of human activities is equivalent to 0.633 billion m3/a, with 62.31% of water from upstream as directly artificial water consumption, accounting for 71.52% of overall results. After that, the contribution of human activities started to gradually decrease, indicating the sign of relief of the conflicts between water conservation and human activities in the midstream of Shiyang river.

Key words: inflection point, influencing factors, midstream of Shiyang river, relativistic consumption rate, runoff consumption