地理科学进展 ›› 2012, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (11): 1503-1509.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.11.011

• 研究进展 • 上一篇    下一篇

1960 年以来青藏高原气温变化研究进展

宋辞, 裴韬, 周成虎   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2012-02-01 修回日期:2012-08-01 出版日期:2012-11-25 发布日期:2012-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 裴韬(1972-),男,副研究员,主要研究方向为空间数据挖掘和空间信息统计等.E-mail: peit@lreis.ac.cn E-mail:peit@lreis.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:宋辞(1986-),男,博士研究生,主要研究方向为水热时空数据挖掘.E-mail: songc@lreis.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40830529);中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX2-YW-QN303);中国科学院地理资源所自主部署创新项目(200905004);863 项目(2009AA12Z227).

Research Progresses of Surface Temperature Characteristic Change over Tibetan Plateau since 1960

SONG Ci, PEI Tao, ZHOU Chenghu   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Reeasch, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2012-02-01 Revised:2012-08-01 Online:2012-11-25 Published:2012-11-25

摘要: 青藏高原是中国最大、世界海拔最高的高原,它对全球气候系统存在显著影响.本文对青藏高原自1960年以来的气温变化特征及其影响因素的研究进行了概述与总结.近50 年来,青藏高原气温明显上升,经历了一个冷期和一个暖期,气温在20 世纪80 年代发生突变,整体呈现前低后高波动上升的趋势;最低气温和最高气温呈不对称的线性增温趋势,最低气温的上升速率要比最高气温快得多;而极端事件频率、强度也有所变化,其中低温事件大大减少,高温事件则明显增加;各类界限温度的积温以及持续日数等生物温度指标也都显著增加.在空间分布上,青藏高原气温呈现出整体一致增暖,并且有西高东低、南北反相的变化形态.影响青藏高原气温变化的因素有很多,主要包括天文因素、高原内部气象要素以及外部环流影响等.

关键词: 界限温度, 气温特征, 青藏高原, 生物温度指标

Abstract: As the largest plateau in China and highest plateau on the earth, the Tibetan Plateau has a significant impact on global climate. This article reviews the progress of the study of the characteristics of the surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau in the last 50 years and the causes for the change. The conclusions are as follows. (1) In the last 50 years, the surface air temperature over the Tibetan Plateau has clearly increased, through a cold period (mid-1960s to early 1980s) and a warm period (mid-1980s to present) with increasing fluctuations and the abrupt changes in the 1980s, showing an alternating“low and high”overall upward trend. (2) The upward trend of the lowest temperature and that of the highest temperatures are not in parallel. In other words, the lowest temperatures have increased more dramatically than the highest temperatures. In addition, the frequency and the intensity of the extreme events have also changed, with extreme low temperature events decreasing significantly and extreme high temperature events increasing slightly. (3) As the indices of the biological events, the accumulated temperatures and their time durations have increased as well. In spatial scale, the temperature in the Tibetan Plateau has shown an overall increase, with the change to a greater extent in the west than that in the east, and an opposite phase zonally. (4) Many factors affect the surface air temperature change over the Tibetan Plateau, such as sunspot cycle, various meteorological elements in the plateau and the atmospheric circulation.

Key words: accumulated temperature, biological temperature indices, surface temperature characteristic, Tibetan Plateau