地理科学进展 ›› 2012, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (9): 1212-1223.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.09.013

• 土地利用与土地覆被变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

干旱区典型绿洲土地利用/覆被变化及其对土壤盐渍化的效应研究——以新疆沙雅县为例

孙倩1,2, 塔西甫拉提·特依拜1,2, 丁建丽1,2, 张飞1,2, 买买提·沙吾提1,2, 韩桂红1,2   

  1. 1. 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院, 乌鲁木齐830046;
    2. 新疆大学绿洲生态教育部重点实验室, 乌鲁木齐830046
  • 收稿日期:2012-01-01 修回日期:2012-03-01 出版日期:2012-09-25 发布日期:2012-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 塔西甫拉提·特依拜(1958-),男,维吾尔族,教授。E-mail:tash@xju.edu.cn E-mail:tash@xju.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:孙倩(1986-),女,新疆沙湾县人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为干旱区资源环境与RS应用。E-mail:sq061@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40961025, 40901163);资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室开放课题项目(2010kf0003sa)。

Study on Land Use/Cover Changes and Soil Salinization in Dry Areas: A Case Study of Shaya County in Xinjiang

SUN Qian1,2, TASHPOLAT·Tiyip1,2, DING Jianli1,2, ZHANG Fei1,2, MAMAT·Sawut1,2, HAN Guihong1,2   

  1. 1. School of Resources & Environmental Science, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology of Ministry of Education, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China
  • Received:2012-01-01 Revised:2012-03-01 Online:2012-09-25 Published:2012-09-25

摘要: 本研究选用了1989 年、1998 年以及2009 年Landsat TM/ETM+影像, 利用3S技术, 深入剖析了盐渍地的分布与变化状况, 结合研究区20 年水盐动态变化, 分析了盐渍土土壤的含水量、含盐量、pH值、TDS以及7 大化学成分的分布现状, 并基于土地利用/覆被变化的研究, 研究了土地利用/覆被变化与土壤盐渍化效应的影响。分析结果表明:①20 年间, 研究区土地利用/覆被类型有很大的变化, 综合土地利用动态度仅为0.476%, 中轻度盐渍地和重度盐渍地恶化速率呈现先增加后减少的趋势, 盐渍化进程有所遏制, 但依然无法扭转逐步恶化的趋势。②研究区土壤呈碱性, 土壤盐渍化的危害主要是NaCl, 其次是MgCl2以及Na2SO4;各采样点不同深度的含水量大小存在明显差异, 但变化趋势基本相似, 其中表层土壤的含水量与其他深度土层含水量的区别显著;不同深度的土层, 盐渍土的类型也有着较大的差异性。③20 年间, 耕地转化为中轻度盐渍地和重度盐渍地的面积分别占原耕地面积的3.484%和0.418%, 水体、沙漠、其他与中轻度盐渍地、重度盐渍地的相互转化均非常微弱, 中轻度盐渍地与重度盐渍地之间的相互转化频繁。

关键词: 干旱区, 含水量, 含盐量, 土地利用/覆被, 新疆沙雅县, 盐渍化

Abstract: This study, taking the typical oasis of Shaya, Xinjiang as an example, used three temporal images combined with field surveys. With the application of remote sensing, GIS and GPS, this paper investigates the distribution and changes of the slight-moderate and heavy saline land, and examines the relationship between the slight-moderate saline land, heavy saline land and other types of landscapes. Combining with the water-salt dynamics in the study area during the last 20 years, it analyzed the distribution of the saline soil moisture content, pH value, degree of mineralization and the chemical composition, and conducted a study on land use/cover changes and salinization effects in the dry area. The conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) From 1989 to 2009, various types of land use/cover changes significantly affected the study area and there was frequent conversion of one type into another, with comprehensive land use degree being 0.476% in the study area. Between the former nine years and the latter eleven years, the rate of deterioration of slight-moderate and heavy saline land showed a decreasing trend after the first increase. Although the salinization was mitigated, it was still unable to reverse the gradual salinization in the study area and the heavy saline land continued to increase. (2) The soil in the study area was alkaline, and the major soluble ions were Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, and SO42-. It is reported that soil alkalization was caused mainly by NaCl, followed by MgCl2 and Na2SO4. The soil moisture content at a 0~ 10 cm depth was low, while that at depths of 10~30 cm and 30~50 cm was higher. Although soil moisture content of the sampling points at differtent depths were different, but the trends were similar. Different depths of soil and types of saline soil also had a large difference, and the most surface soil salinity was different between different depths. (3) During the 20 years, the area conversion of farmland to slight-moderate and heavy saline land accounted for 3.484% and 0.418%, respectively. The transformation between water body, desert, others (gobi, sand and clay, etc.) and saline land (slight-moderate and heavy saline land) was very weak. The conversion of slight-moderate and heavy saline land to each other was frequent.

Key words: dry area, land use/cover change (LUCC), moisture content, salinization, salt content, Shaya County in Xinjiang