地理科学进展 ›› 2012, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (9): 1196-1203.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.09.011

• 土地利用与土地覆被变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

清代西南地区耕地空间格局网格化重建

李士成1,2, 何凡能1, 陈屹松1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2012-03-01 修回日期:2012-05-01 出版日期:2012-09-25 发布日期:2012-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 何凡能(1963-),男,副研究员,研究方向为历史地理与环境变迁。E-mail:hefn@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:hefn@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:李士成(1989-),男,硕士研究生,研究方向为历史土地利用与覆被变化。E-mail:lisc.10s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40971061);全球变化研究国家重大科学研究计划项目(2010CB950901)。

Gridding Reconstruction of Cropland Spatial Patterns in Southwest China in the Qing Dynasty

LI Shicheng1,2, HE Fanneng1, CHEN Yisong1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2012-03-01 Revised:2012-05-01 Online:2012-09-25 Published:2012-09-25

摘要: 本文以现代耕地分布格局为基础, 通过量化地形(海拔、坡度)、气候生产潜力(光照、温度、水分)和人口密度等因子与耕地空间分布的关系, 重建了清代西南地区6 个时点分辨率为10 km×10 km的耕地数据。结果表明:①就整体而言, 清代西南地区耕地空间格局的变化表现在两个方面:一是垦殖范围的扩张, 1661-1911 年土地垦殖率在0~10%的网格占比减少了约24%, 主要分布在四川盆地和云贵高原;二是垦殖强度的提高, 1661-1911 年垦殖率大于30%的网格占比提高了10.3%, 最为显著的是四川盆地和云南中东部地区。②就清代西南地区耕地数量增减来看, 整个时段可划分为3 个阶段:前期(1661-1724 年) “复原性”垦殖, 60 多年间土地垦殖率在0~10%的网格占比减少了11.4%;中期(1724-1820 年)缓慢“拓展性”垦殖, 全区垦殖率在0~10%的网格占比下降约7%, 在30%以上的网格占比提高约7%;后期(1820-1911 年)局部抛荒与再垦, 垦殖率在0~10%的网格占比从75.0%降至72.2%, 在30%以上的网格占比从9.1%提高至10.9%。相关分析表明, 本文网格化重建的清代西南地区的耕地空间格局具有一定的合理性。

关键词: 耕地空间分布, 清代, 网格化重建, 西南地区

Abstract: On the basis of modern cropland spatial pattern, we designed a method to quantify the relationship among topography (including altitude and slope), production potential of climate (including light, temperature and water), population density and cropland spatial pattern. Then the method was used to reconstruct cropland spatial pattern with a resolution of 10 km by 10 km in Southwest China for 6 periods between 1661 and 1784 in the Qing Dynasty. The results are shown as follows. (1) As a whole, the changes of cropland spatial pattern in Southwest China can be described in two respects. One is the expansion of cultivated area, which are mainly distributed in the Sichuan Basin and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The grid cells with small cropland fractions (0~10%) decreased by 24.0% during the past 250 years. The other is enhancement of cultivation intensity, which are obvious in the Sichuan Basin and the central-eastern parts of Yunnan Province. The grid cells whose cropland fractions are relatively large (>30%) increased by 10.3% during the past 250 years. (2) The process of cropland change in Southwest China in the Qing Dynasty can be divided into three periods. The cultivation recovery period (1661-1724)--the grid cells whose cropland fractions are small (0~10%) decreased by 11.4%; the slow cultivation expansion period (1724-1820)-the grid cells whose cropland fractions are small (0~10%) decreased by 7% while the grid cells with relatively large cropland fractions (>30%) increased by 7%. The postwar abandonment of cropland in some parts of the study area and recovery period (1820-1911)-the grid cells whose cropland fractions are small (0~10%) decreased from 75.0% to 72.2% while the grid cells whose cropland fractions are relatively large (>30%) increased from 9.1% to 10.9%. The results of correlation analysis indicate that the reconstruction is reasonable to some degree.

Key words: gridding reconstruction, historical period, Southwest China, spatial distribution of cropland