地理科学进展 ›› 2012, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (9): 1180-1185.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.09.009

• 水文与气象过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

鄂尔多斯高原地区清代旱灾与气候特征

奚秀梅1,2, 赵景波1   

  1. 1. 陕西师范大学旅游与环境学院, 西安710062;
    2. 石河子大学理学院, 石河子832003
  • 收稿日期:2012-01-01 修回日期:2012-05-01 出版日期:2012-09-25 发布日期:2012-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 赵景波(1953-),男,教授,博士生导师,主要从事环境科学与自然地理研究。E-mail:zhaojb@snnu.edu.cn E-mail:zhaojb@snnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:奚秀梅(1972-),女,博士研究生,讲师,研究方向为区域环境变化。E-mail:xxm199963@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金重大项目(11&ZD097)。

Characteristics of Drought Disasters and Climate in Ordos Plateau during the Qing Dynasty

XI Xiumei1,2, ZHAO Jingbo1   

  1. 1. College of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China;
    2. College of Science, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003, China
  • Received:2012-01-01 Revised:2012-05-01 Online:2012-09-25 Published:2012-09-25

摘要: 通过对鄂尔多斯高原地区文献资料的搜集整理, 研究了该区清代旱灾等级、频次、周期和气候特征。结果表明, 鄂尔多斯高原地区清代旱灾频次较高, 约0.34 次/a, 以轻、中度旱灾为主。该区旱灾的发生具有明显的阶段性, 1701-1780 年、1821-1845 年和1876-1911 年为多发阶段, 1644-1700 年、1781-1820 年和1846-1875 年为低发阶段。约90%的旱灾发生在春、夏季或春夏连旱。该区清代旱灾有7 a 左右的短周期, 23-29 a 左右的中周期和54 a左右的长周期;各等级旱灾有准5 a 短周期, 特大旱灾的第1 主周期是17 a。干冷多风的区域气候环境, 以及农业活动是该区旱灾发生的两个主要原因。推测该区清代发生大旱灾和特大旱灾年份的年降水量约为200~250 mm, 年蒸发量约为2400~2600 mm。该区清代气候可划分为6 个阶段:1644-1700 年→1701-1780 年→1781-1820 年→1821-1845 年→1846-1875 年→1876-1911 年, 对应的年降水量特征为:多→少→多→少→多→少, 而蒸发量和风沙天气特征为:少→多→少→多→少→多。确定1762-1766 年、1875-1878 年、1899-1902 年为3 个干旱气候事件, 推测这3个干旱气候事件期间年平均降水量为230 mm左右, 蒸发量为2500 mm左右, 大风沙尘天气频繁。

关键词: 等级, 鄂尔多斯高原, 干旱化, 旱灾, 小波分析

Abstract: Based on materials collection and analysis, this paper studies grades, frequency and periodicity of the drought disasters and characteristics of the climate in Ordos Plateau region during the Qing Dynasty. The results show that the drought frequency is relatively high in this region during the Qing Dynasty (averaged 0.34 times/ year, and most were mild and moderate drought events. This paper divides the Qing Dynasty into several phases according to the drought frequency in this region. The phases of frequent drought occurrences include 1701-1780, 1821-1845 and 1876-1911. The phases of seldom droughts occurrence includes 1644-1700, 1781-1820 and 1846-1875. About 90% of the drought disaster events were observed in spring and summer or from spring into summer. In different time scales, the cycles of drought disaster occurrences are respectively 7a, 23a, 29a and 54 a. Each grade of droughts has a short quasi-cycle of 5a and the extreme droughts of first principal cycle are 17a. The occurrence of the droughts had two main reasons. One was dry and windy regional climate environment, and the other was human agricultural activities leading to vegetation damage and land desertification. This paper infers that the annual rainfall is 200~250 mm, and that the annual evaporation is 2400~2600 mm in extreme and severe drought years. The Qing dynasty climate in this region can be divided into six stages which are 1644-1700, 1701-1780, 1781-1820, 1821-1845, 1846-1875 and 1876-1911, respectively, and the corresponding annual rainfall is much, little, much, little, much and little, respectively, while the characteristics of evaporation and sandstorm weathers are little, much, little, much, little and much, respectively. What's more, this paper infers that 1762-1766, 1875-1878, 1899-1902 are three dry phases. During the three phases, the annual rainfall was about 230 mm, and the evaporation was about 2500 mm, with frequent windy dust weather and drying trend in the Ordos Plateau region.

Key words: drought, drying trend, grade, Ordos Plateau, wavelet analysis