地理科学进展 ›› 2012, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (8): 1063-1070.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.010

• 土地利用与乡村地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

2008 年中国种植业地理集聚与专业化格局

李二玲1,2, 朱纪广1, 李小建1,2   

  1. 1. 河南大学黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心, 开封475001;
    2. 河南大学环境与规划学院, 开封475001
  • 收稿日期:2011-11-01 修回日期:2012-03-01 出版日期:2012-08-25 发布日期:2012-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 李小建(1954-),男,河南孟津人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事经济地理学教学和研究工作。E-mail:xjli@henu.edu.cn E-mail:xjli@henu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:李二玲(1969-),女,河南兰考人,副教授,博士,研究方向为产业集聚与农区发展。E-mail:erlingli@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41071080, 41071082);河南省重点软科学招投标项目(102400410002);河南省哲学社会科学规划项目(2011BJJ004);河南省政府决策研究招标课题(2012B127)。

Geographical Agglomeration and Specialized Pattern of Planting in China Based on the Different Classifications

LI Erling1,2, ZHU Jiguang1, LI Xiaojian1,2   

  1. 1. Research Center of Yellow River Civilization and Sustainable Development, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China;
    2. College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, China
  • Received:2011-11-01 Revised:2012-03-01 Online:2012-08-25 Published:2012-08-25

摘要: 目前对农业地理集聚和专业化发展的研究较少。本文通过计算和比较中国2008 年种植业不同分类层次中类、小类和细类的平均基尼系数、平均Moran’s I指数和各层次农作物的专业化指数发现, 在中国省域层次上(不包括港、澳、台地区), 种植业具有一定的地理集聚态势, 且种植业划分越细, 空间集聚和专业化生产趋势越明显。从大类看, 种植业生产分布相对分散, 各省在大类上“大而全”的生产, 但从较小类上更加集聚和专业化。中国种植业区域专业化生产格局已逐步出现。大宗农产品的区域专业化程度较低, 而经济作物区域专业化程度很高。虽然具体的空间集聚格局是由各地的自然条件和各种农作物生产条件的匹配程度来决定的, 但政府决策、制度变革等社会因素在区域专业化生产上起着重要作用, 是对自然集聚格局的优化调节。定量测度种植业地理集聚与专业化发展的空间格局, 找出进行农业区域化、规模化和专业化生产具有潜力的具体区位, 可以加大政府对种植业空间布局调控优化的作用, 对各地区制定具体的农业政策具有重要意义。

关键词: 不同分类层次, 区域生产专业化, 中国, 种植业地理集聚

Abstract: There has been less current literature on the pattern of Chinese agricultural geographic concentration and specialization. This paper discusses the geographic concentration pattern of China's planting in 2008. Through calculating the average Gini coefficient (0.46,0.66 and 0.68, respectively), the average Moran’s I index (0.11,0.18 and 0.20, respectively ) and the Location quotient (LQ ) in the three scale classifications at the provincial level, it is found that the planting in China presents certain geographic concentration and exposes different agglomeration degree at different levels of industrial classification. And the finer division of planting industry, the more obvious the trend of spatial concentration and specialization of production. At the macro-planting level, the distribution of crop production is relatively dispersed, while at the micro-planting level, the distribution of crop production shows the trend of more agglomeration and specialization. The regional specialized production pattern in Chinese planting has emerged. The regional specialized degree of the staple crops is low, and that of the commercial crops is relatively high. Although the specific pattern of spatial concentration is determined by the matching between the natural conditions and production conditions of various crops, the government decision-making, institutional changes and other social factors plays an important role in regional specialized production functioning as the optimization and adjustment to the natural gathering. So, by calculating the spatial autocorrelation and the Gini coefficient, specialized index in various types of crops grown in contiguous spatial patterns, the potential location of the agricultural regional specialization and large-scale production can be identified, which can help the government make specific agricultural policies in different regions.

Key words: China, different scales of planting, geographical agglomeration of planting, specialization of regional production