地理科学进展 ›› 2012, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (8): 1032-1041.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.08.006

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国城市空间扩展的非协调性研究

孙平军, 修春亮, 王绮, 丁四保   

  1. 东北师范大学城市与环境科学学院, 长春130024
  • 收稿日期:2011-11-01 修回日期:2012-01-01 出版日期:2012-08-25 发布日期:2012-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 修春亮(1964-),教授,博士生导师,主要研究方向城市与区域规划、经济地理。E-mail:xiucl@nenu.edu.cn E-mail:xiucl@nenu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:孙平军(1981-),男,湖南隆回人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为城市与区域规划、区域经济开发。E-mail:sunpj031@nenu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41071109);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(10SSXT101)。

Study on the Non-conformity of Urban Spatial Expansion in China

SUN Pingjun, XIU Chunliang, WANG Qi, DING Sibao   

  1. Department of Geography, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
  • Received:2011-11-01 Revised:2012-01-01 Online:2012-08-25 Published:2012-08-25

摘要: 针对中国人多地少, 且处于城镇化快速发展阶段的客观现实, 以及城市空间扩展研究中存在的一系列问题, 比如相对缺乏合理性评价, 存在重实证轻理论, 重个案缺规律, 重特大、发达城市轻一般城市的不足, 本文从城市空间扩展非协调性的基础理论问题着手, 构建非协调性评价体系, 并以2009 年中国246 个地级市为研究单元, 对其扩展规律进行总结;然后从微观层面的行为主体博弈、要素流集聚扩散及制度安排反馈视角讨论了其内在机理;最后从可持续发展视角提出对策建议。结果表明:中国城市空间扩展效率低下, 表现在区际功能匹配性差, 城市化质量整体水平不高:内在“人口—经济—空间”城市化耦合协调度低, 用地增长弹性系数全国平均值为1.192, 其中大于1 的城市占26.42%, 土地资源浪费严重;空间分布呈现出由东往西依次递减的地理格局;城市的功能地位与铁路干线对其影响大, 呈现出地级市以上城市>地级市, 铁路干线城市>非铁路干线城市;通过机理分析揭示出, “产权区域”视角下的地方政府, 出于实现自身行为目标函数(政府绩效和地方财政可支配收入)最大化的考虑, 而在制度安排的框架下, 通过对要素流的做功而传导出来的制度反馈效应:现有制度安排强化了地方政府的“扩散冲动”;在政策建议部分, 基于地方政府的行为目标函数提出修改完善现有制度的建议。

关键词: 城市空间扩展, 非协调性, 机理, 中国

Abstract: Faced with the national conditions that China has a large population with a small amount of land, the economic development remains at a low level, the urbanization is still in the accelerated development stage and the construction land input is close to its growth limitation, thus how to allocate the land resource reasonably and effectively makes it to be an important composite for scholars in the development research. Thus urban spatial expansion has become a hot topic in recent research. However, there exist some shortcomings which include some research lacking a reasonable assessment, emphasizing large and developed cities while neglecting studies on theory and ordinary cities. Therefore, this article, starting from the basic theory on the non-conformity of urban spatial expansion, analyzed its concept and content; and built a non-coordination evaluation system, and took 246 prefecture-level cities as research units to judge non-coordination of China's urban spatial expansion; and then, from the micro-level perspective of the behavior of game, flow elements concentration and diffusion and feedback of institutional arrangements, discussed its internal mechanism; finally, from the sustainable development perspective, this article put forward some policy proposals. The result shows that: the efficiency of China urban spatial expansion is low: poor inter-regional function matching, low-level of overall urbanization—intrinsic“ population-economy-space”urbanization’s coupled coordination being low, almost all the cities remaining at a low-coupled phase, the average land growth elasticity being 1.192, cities with land growth elasticity > 1 accounting for about 26.42% of the country, therefore, it can be said that there exists serious waste of land resources; the spatial distribution of China urban spatial expansion non-conformity shows a geographical pattern of decreasing from east to west; the city functional status and the main rail lines have an important impact on China's urban spatial expansion non-conformity, the non-conformity degrees shows a trend that cities above prefecture- level city > cities of prefecture-level city, cities on the main rail line > cities that are not on the main rail lines; urban spatial expansion internal mechanism analysis reveals that, from the“ property right regional”perspective, under the current institution framework, the local governments, in order to maximize and realize their own objective function (government performance and the maximization of the disposable income of local finance), acts on the flow elements to show the affection of institution feedback; existing institution arrangements strengthen the local government’s“diffusion impulse”on the urban construction land input; finally, this article proposed some amendments to improve the current institution system on the basis of local government objective function.

Key words: China, mechanism, non-conformity, urban spatial expansion