地理科学进展 ›› 2012, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (7): 878-884.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.07.006

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

1960-2010 年贵州省喀斯特山区陡坡土地利用变化

张跃红1, 安裕伦1, 马良瑞1, 李雪2   

  1. 1. 贵州师范大学山地资源与环境遥感应用重点实验室, 贵阳550001;
    2. 贵阳市第四十中学, 贵阳550001
  • 收稿日期:2011-11-01 修回日期:2012-01-01 出版日期:2012-07-25 发布日期:2012-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 安裕伦(1957-),男,教授,硕士生导师,从事地理信息系统与遥感工作。E-mail:anyulun@126.com E-mail:anyulun@126.com
  • 作者简介:张跃红(1987-),女,贵州贵定人,硕士研究生,研究方向为地理信息系统与遥感。E-mail:449253164@qq.com
  • 基金资助:

    贵州省科技支撑攻关计划项目(黔科合GY字(2007)3017, 黔科合GY字(2008)3022)。

Land Use Change of Slope Land in Karst Mountainous Regions, Guizhou Province during 1960-2010

ZHANG Yuehong1, AN Yulun1, MA Liangrui1, LI Xue2   

  1. 1. Provincial Key Laboratory of Mountain Resources and Environmental Remote Sensing, Guizou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, China;
    2. No.40 Middle School of Guiyang, Guiyang 550001, China
  • Received:2011-11-01 Revised:2012-01-01 Online:2012-07-25 Published:2012-07-25

摘要: 基于GIS 与RS技术, 以贵州省喀斯特山区坡度大于25°的区域为研究对象, 利用1960 年1:50000 地形图、1990 年Landsat TM遥感影像以及2010 年的环境减灾卫星(HJ-1A/1B)影像, 解译获取1960、1990、2010 年3 个时间点的土地利用数据, 并结合贵州省水文地质图、坡度图进行陡坡土地利用变化分析。结果表明:①1960-1990 年的30 年间, 有林地、灌木林、水体呈减少趋势, 其中灌木林减少的最多, 其次是有林地;而草地、建设用地、裸岩和耕地呈持续增长趋势, 其中草地增加的最多, 其次是耕地。②1990-2010 年的20 年间, 灌木林、裸岩、耕地呈减少趋势, 其中耕地减少的最多;而有林地、疏林地、草地、水体呈增长趋势, 其中疏林地增加的最多。③随坡度增加覆盖比例呈降低趋势的土地利用类型为有林地、疏林地、水体、建设用地和耕地;随坡度增加覆盖比例呈增加趋势的土地利用为灌木林、草地和裸岩。

关键词: GIS, RS, 陡坡, 贵州省, 喀斯特, 土地利用

Abstract: Land use change has intensively been studied in different ways across the world and it has greatly been influenced by human activity such as land degradation and soil erosion, land acquisition and expansion during the process of urbanization. Therefore, it is important to understand the process of land use/cover change for policy making, evaluation of potential environmental problems and man-land relationship. The environment pressure has continuously increased with constant population pressure since the 1960s. Serious environment problems have resulted from livelihood, insufficient awareness of environmental protection as well as a lack of laws and regulations concerned. And then a strategy of sustainable development has been implemented to protect environment. The policy of returning cultivated land to forest and grassland was issued in the 1990s. The exposed area of carbonate rocks has 73% and the mountainous and hilly areas account for 92.5% of the total provincial area. Therefore, the slope land is the main part of cultivated land resource in Guizhou Province. This kind of land use pattern leads to ecological issues of serious soil erosion and rock desertification. So it is important to study the land use change of the slope land in karst mountainous regions in Guizhou over the past 50 years. Based on GIS and RS technologies, this paper conducts studies on the regions with the slope greater than 25 gradients of karst mountainous regions in Guizhou Province. With the topographical maps at the scale of 1: 50000 in 1960 and Landsat TM and HJ-1A/1B RS images obtained in 1990 and 2010, the land use data in 1960, 1990 and 2010 was interpreted. Combined with the hydrogeological map and slope map of Guizhou, the land use variations in slope land are analyzed. The results are shown in the following aspects. (1) From 1960 to 1990, forest land, shrub land and water were decreasing, in which shrub land decreased the most and secondly forest land; while grassland, construction land, bare rock and cultivation land were increasing, in which grassland increased most, followed by the cultivation land. (2) From 1990 to 2010, shrub land, bare rock and cultivation land were decreasing in which cultivation land reduced the most; while forest land, open forest land, grassland and water were increasing in which open forest land increased the most. (3) The land use types which were distributed in an inversely proportional to slope were forest land, open forest land, water, construction land and cultivation land; while those which were proportional to slope were shrub land, grassland and bare rock. The development of this area before 1990 was mainly focused on agriculture, but after 1990 it changed and guided by urbanized development. It is indicated primarily that the cultivated land increased drastically from 1960 to 1990 as a result of reclamation under the increasing population pressure and the total area of cultivated land in China dropped in a continuous way, while the total area of city grew in a continuous way because the policy of returning cultivated land to forest and grassland had been implemented since 1990 and urban expansion had grown rapidly.

Key words: GIS, Guizhou Province, karst, land use change, RS, slope land