地理科学进展 ›› 2012, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (4): 527-534.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.04.017

• 旅游与文化地理 • 上一篇    

地理学视角下单位制研究进展

刘天宝, 柴彦威   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2011-09-01 修回日期:2011-12-01 出版日期:2012-04-25 发布日期:2012-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 柴彦威,男,博士,教授,主要研究方向为时间地理学、社会地理学、城市与区域规划.E-mail: chyw@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41071102).

The Meaning, Content and Prospect of Danwei System Research in the Perspective of Geography

LIU Tianbao, CHAI Yanwei   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2011-09-01 Revised:2011-12-01 Online:2012-04-25 Published:2012-04-25

摘要: 单位制是在中国计划经济时期和当时特殊的历史条件下,国家逐渐在城市构建的以实现共产主义和现代化为目标的基本工具,其最基本的特征表现为“城市基本单元”.单位制的基本工具本质和作为城市单元的特征表现为在空间性、时间性和社会性三方面.单位制研究可以帮助理解计划经济时期的历史,通过评析明确如何扬弃单位制的各种因素.同时,单位制研究是解读中国城市转型的独特和重要视角,不仅可以明晰转型的机理,还可以透视转型中的各种问题.在规划未来方面,单位制研究可以促进经历过转型洗礼的单位制下一步的保护、利用和发展,还可以将单位制中的积极因素以新的方式应用到城市新的增量中去.地理学视角下的单位制研究将从相互联系的单位制第一、第二和第三空间3 个方面展开.第一空间解读单位制物质空间的结构、功能和形变;第二空间解读单位制的政治组织、专业职能和社会文化的空间表征;第三空间的研究从多视角和多方法展开,解构单位制中的空间冲突,构建面向未来的和谐城市空间.从尺度来讲,单位制空间的研究在空间、时间和社会3 个方面可以进一步展开,形成多种尺度.已有研究在理论和实证方面都取得了明显的成果,但今后的研究还需要在广度、理论深度和跨学科研究方面进一步加强.

关键词: 尺度, 单位制, 地理学, 空间, 意义

Abstract: Danwei System was a gradually constructed tool by the nation to achieve communism and modernization in the period of planned economy and under special historical conditions. The representation of its fundamental characteristic is“urban unit”. Both the nature and feature are unfolded in spatiality, temporality and sociality. Danwei research System can help understand the history of planned economy to sublate Danwei factors through evaluation. Also, Danwei System research forms an important and special perspective not only to understand the mechanism of the urban transition in China but also to analyze those problems in the same period. As far as future planning is concerned, Danwei System research can promote further protection and development of those old Danwei, as well as help the application of the positive factors to new urban increments. Danwei System research in the perspective of geography can be carried out in three related aspects, the first space, the second space and the third space. The first space research consists of spatial structure, function and deformation of the physical space; the second space research describes and explains the spatial representations of political organization, professional function and society and culture; the third space research will be done in different perspectives and methods to deconstruct spatial conflicts in Danwei space and construct harmonious space. The research in the perspective of geography includes three scales, social scale, spatial scale and temporal scale. The existing research has made some important achievements, but much more work needs to be done in the aspects of span, theoretical depth and interdisciplinary studies.

Key words: Danwei System, geography, meaning, scale, space