地理科学进展 ›› 2012, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (4): 468-475.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2012.04.010

• 农业与乡村地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

三工河流域农户灌溉效率及影响因素

陈大波1,2, 张新焕1, 杨德刚1, 肖艳秋1,2, 杨帆1,2, 夏文进1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所,乌鲁木齐 830011;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2011-08-01 修回日期:2011-09-01 出版日期:2012-04-25 发布日期:2012-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 杨德刚(1962-),男,新疆阜康人,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事区域发展、干旱区绿洲农业研究.E-mail:dgyang@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(40801065);中国科学院西部行动计划项目(KZCX2-XB3-01).

A Study of Farmers'Irrigation Efficiency and InfluencingFactors in Sangong River Basin

CHEN Dabo1,2, ZHANG Xinhuan1, YANG Degang1, XIAO Yanqiu1,2, YANG Fan1,2, XIAWenjin1,2   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2011-08-01 Revised:2011-09-01 Online:2012-04-25 Published:2012-04-25

摘要: 通过三工河流域农户访谈和问卷调查,基于DEA方法,从作物类型和地域空间两方面评价了农户灌溉效率,利用Tobit 模型探讨了农户灌溉效率差异产生的影响因素及不同因素对灌溉效率的作用程度.研究结果显示:①不同作物类型的灌溉效率不同,平均灌溉效率的大小依次为棉花(0.95)>葡萄(0.89)>葵花(0.88)>打瓜葫芦(0.80)>玉米(0.78)>小麦(0.72).②不同地域空间的灌溉效率具有差异,同种作物的平均灌溉效率在兵团与地方间差异显著,兵团略大于地方;上、中、下游进行比较,上游与中下游作物平均灌溉效率差异显著,下游>中游>上游.③灌溉方式、作物类型、收入、灌水量、水价、灌溉管理、技术培训对灌溉效率影响显著.其中灌溉量与灌溉效率呈负相关;灌溉方式、灌溉管理规范程度、水价、技术培训、收入与灌溉效率呈正相关;灌溉效率随种植作物类型和区域不同存在显著变化.最后基于研究结果提出了提高灌溉效率的政策建议.

关键词: 灌溉效率, 农户, 三工河流域, 影响因素

Abstract: Through farmers' interviews and questionnaires, by using the DEA method, this paper evaluated farmers' irrigation efficiency in the Sangong River Basin from two aspects of the crop type and areal space. By employing the Tobit model, the paper explored the factors that affected farmers' irrigation efficiency and different factors that played a role in determining the irrigation efficiency. The results are shown as follows. (1) There are significant differences among different crop types in irrigation efficiency. And the average irrigation efficiency of six crop types is in the order of cotton (0.95) > grapes (0.89) > sunflower (0.88)> hit melon gourd (0.80) > corn (0.78) > wheat (0.72). (2) Irrigation efficiency is different in different regions. Average irrigation efficiency of the same crop type was significantly different in local and corp's; moreover, from lower to upper reaches, the irrigation efficiency was also significantly different, namely, corps' > local's; lower's > middle's > upper's. (3) Irrigation methods, crop type, per hm2 income, irrigation yield, price of water, irrigation management and technical training have significant impacts on the irrigation efficiency. Concrete details, irrigation yield and irrigation efficiency are negatively correlated; while irrigation methods, irrigation management, water price, technical training and per hm2 income are positively correlated with irrigation efficiency. In addition, in accordance with different crop types and regions, irrigation efficiency has a significant change. Finally, we put forward some suggestions to raise the irrigation efficiency.

Key words: factors, farmers, irrigation efficiency, Sangong river basin