地理科学进展 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (11): 1449-1455.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.11.016

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    

2007 年中国耕地资源安全评价

宋伟1, 陈百明1, 史文娇1, 吴建寨2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101;
    2. 中国农业科学院农业信息研究所,北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2011-03-01 修回日期:2011-06-01 出版日期:2011-11-25 发布日期:2011-11-25
  • 作者简介:宋伟(1981-),男,山东沂源人,博士,助理研究员,研究方向为土地利用与整理。E-mail: songw@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41001108,40971107);北京市自然科学基金项目(9113029);教育部人文社会科学研究项目(09YJC630142)。

Evaluation for Cultivated Land Resources Security of China in 2007

SONGWei1, CHEN Baiming1, SHIWenjiao1, WU Jianzhai2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Agriculture Information Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2011-03-01 Revised:2011-06-01 Online:2011-11-25 Published:2011-11-25

摘要: 本文从耕地资源的数量安全、质量安全和生态安全3 个方面,选取14 个指标评价和分析了2007 年中国的耕地资源安全状况。本文的数据主要来源于国土资源部土地利用变更数据、农用地分等定级数据、第二次土壤普查数据和统计数据。研究显示:①2007 年,中国耕地资源安全评价分值为0.517,资源安全保障程度不高。区域上,耕地资源安全呈现出东部高、西部低的特点,高耕地资源安全省份主要有东部和中部的山东、福建、浙江等10 个省份以及西部的新疆和西藏;低资源安全省份则大多分布在西部地区,包括陕西、内蒙古、甘肃、青海、宁夏等省份。②耕地资源数量安全评价分值为0.195,资源安全分布呈现出东北部较高,黄土高原、华北平原和四川盆地较低的特点。生态退耕和建设占用带来的耕地快速减少,以及区域粮食生产定位形成的较高耕地保有量目标是造成以上地区耕地数量安全程度较低的主要原因。③耕地质量安全评价分值为0.151,呈现出东部高、东北部和西部较低的特点。区域耕地自然本底质量(耕地自然质量等别)是造成区域耕地质量安全差别的主要原因。④ 耕地生态安全的评价分值为0.171,呈现出东北部高、东部低的特点。东部地区耕地资源生态安全偏低的主要原因是化肥、农药、农膜的过量施用及其引起的土壤污染问题;西部地区耕地生态安全程度不高的主要原因是相对严重的耕地水土流失状况。

关键词: 耕地资源安全, 生态, 数量, 质量, 中国

Abstract: 14 indexes about quantity security, quality security and ecological security were selected to evaluate the cultivated land resources security (CLRS) of China in 2007. The data were derived from the land use survey and the reports of agricultural land classification from the Ministry of Land and Resources of China, the Second National Soil Survey (1978) and National Bureau of Statistics of China. The results can be concluded as follows. (1) the CLRS of China is not high in 2007 with a score of only 0.517. Among the four regions, the evaluation value of CLRS is higher in eastern China but lower in western China. At provincial level, the scores of CLRS of Xinjiang and Tibet in Western China and 10 provinces of eastern China, such as Shandong, Fujian, Zhejiang, is higher than those of the others. Provinces with lower scores of CLRS are mostly distributed in Western China, including Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Qinghai, and Ningxia. (2) The quantity security score of CLRS in China is 0.195, higher in Northeast China but lower in regions of Loess Plateau, North China Plain and Sichuan Basin. The quick loss of cultivated land caused by construction occupation and the policy for grainto- green and the high inventory of cultivated land in 2020 under the consideration of regional tasks for grain production are the main reasons resulting in the low quantity security score of CLRS in the three regions. (3) The quality security score of CLRS in China is 0.171, higher in Northeast China but lower in eastern China. Natural land quality is the key factor affecting regional quality security. (4) The ecological security score of CLRS in China is 0.171, higher in Northeast China but lower in eastern China. Eco-environmental problems caused by excessive use of chemical fertilizer, agricultural pesticide and agricultural film are the main reasons leading to lower ecological security in eastern China, but soil and water erosion is the key reason for western China.

Key words: China, cultivated land resources security, ecological environment, quality, quantity