Please wait a minute...
PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY
 
引用检索 快速检索 图表检索 高级检索
地理科学进展  2011, Vol. 30 Issue (8): 1014-1020    DOI: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.008
  区域与产业布局 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
中国城市化发展的紧凑度评价分析
马丽, 金凤君
中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
Evaluation of Chinese Urban Compactness
MALi, JIN Fengjun
Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
全文: PDF(512 KB)  
输出: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      
摘要 中国快速的城市化进程带来的城市空间扩张造成耕地面积减少以及能源资源消费与污染排放增长。20 世纪60 年代以来欧美国家紧凑型城市发展模式以其在有限的城市空间布局较高密度的产业和人口的特征,成为目前中国城市发展的选择。但是,由于中国的城市化发展道路和特征迥异于西方国家,因此关于紧凑城市“提高城市密度、促进土地利用的功能混合以及鼓励公交出行”的内涵,以及紧凑城市可以降低城市交通能源消费与污染排放、提高城市土地利用效率以及城市公共服务设施利用率的观点在中国是否可行,还需要仔细分析。在辨析中国所需要的紧凑城市内涵基础上,建立城市紧凑度评估指标体系,对中国120 个地级及以上城市的紧凑度进行评估,并对其与资源利用和污染排放强度的相关性进行分析。研究发现,中国67.2%的城市处于不紧凑状态,城市的紧凑度与城市人口规模、经济规模没有很强的联系,与人均能源消耗以及污水排放的相关系数也比较低。究其原因,主要归结于中国城市化发展阶段、城市产业结构特征以及城市基础设施投资不足。本文还对中国需要什么样的紧凑城市,以及如何实现紧凑等进行了探讨。
服务
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章
李丽娟
李海滨
王娟
关键词 紧凑城市紧凑度中国资源环境效应    
Abstract:Rapid urban expansion in China has led to the plowland reduction, energy consumption and pollution discharge increase. The concept of compact city prevailing in western countries since the 1960s has become the choice for China's urban development with the character of high density of industrial sectors and population in limited space. However, the route and characters of Chinese urbanization are rather different from those of western countries. It is necessary to study the feasibility on whether compact city could lead to the decrease of traffic energy consumption and pollution, and increasing economic efficiency of urban land infrastructure. Based on the analysis of compact cities, this paper built the urban compactness evaluation indicators of Chinese cities, evaluated the urban compactness of 120 cities above prefecture level, and studied its correlation matrix with urban size, resource consumption and pollution factors. The results show that many cities were in the low degree of compactness in China, and there is a weak correlation between urban compactness with the size of urban population and economy. And it is the same to the resource consumption and pollution release. There are three factors which lead to this dilemma, including rapid urbanization process, characters of urban industrial structure and low investment on public infrastructure. Finally, this paper discussed several questions: (1) what is the ultimate aim of city development? (2) what compact cities does China need? (3) how could China build compact cities?
Key wordsChina    compact city    impact on resource and environment    urban compactness
收稿日期: 2010-10-01      出版日期: 2011-09-23
基金资助:

国家自然科学重点基金项目(40635026)。

作者简介: 马丽(1975-),女,博士,副研究员,山西省祁县人,主要从事经济地理与区域发展方面的研究。E-mail: mali@igsnrr.ac.cn
引用本文:   
马丽, 金凤君. 中国城市化发展的紧凑度评价分析[J]. 地理科学进展, 2011, 30(8): 1014-1020.
MALi, JIN Fengjun. Evaluation of Chinese Urban Compactness. PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY, 2011, 30(8): 1014-1020.
链接本文:  
http://www.progressingeography.com/CN/10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.08.008      或      http://www.progressingeography.com/CN/Y2011/V30/I8/1014
Jenks M, Burton E, Williams K. The compact city: A sustainable urban form. London: Spon Press, 1996.
Borrego C, Martiins H, Tchepel O. How urban structure can affect city sustainability from an air quality perspective. Environmental modeling & software, 2006, 2(4): 461-467.
Holden E, Norland I T. Three Challenges for the compact city as a sustainable urban form: Household consumption of energy and transport in eight residential areas in the Great Oslo Region. Urban Studies, 2005, 42(12): 2145-2166.
Masanobu K, Kenji D. Multiagent land-use and transport model for the policy evaluation of a compact city. Environment and planning B: Planning and design, 2005, 32 (4): 485-504.
Cervero R. Efficient urbanization: economic performance and the shape of the metropolis. Urban Studies, 2001, 38 (10): 1651-1671.
韩笋生, 秦波. 借鉴“紧凑城市”理念, 实现我国城市的可持续发展. 国外城市规划, 2004, 19(6): 23-27.
董爽, 袁晓勐. 城市蔓延与节约型城市建设. 规划师, 2006, 22(5): 11-15.
仇保兴. 紧凑度和多样性: 我国城市可持续发展的核心理念. 城市规划, 2006, 30(11): 18-24.
陈海燕, 贾倍斯. 紧凑还是分散?对中国城市在加速城市化进程中发展方向的思考. 城市规划, 2006, 30(5): 61-69.
方创琳, 祁巍锋, 宋吉涛. 中国城市群紧凑度的综合测度分析. 地理学报, 2008, 63(10): 1011-1021.
Dantzig G B, Satty T L. Compact city: A plan for a liveable urban environment. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1973.
Jacobs J. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House, INC., 1993: 2.
Wheeler S M. The evolution of urban form in Portland and Toronto: Implications for sustainability planning. Local Environment, 2008(3): 317-336.
Breheny M. Urban compaction: Feasible and acceptable? Cities, 1997, 14(4): 209-217.
Bourun L S. Reurbanization, uneven urban development, and the debate on new urban forms. Urban Geography, 1996, 17(8): 690-713.
Ewing R. Is Los Angeles-style sprawl desirable? Journal of the American Planning Association, 1997, 63(1): 107-126.
CEC (Commission of the European Communities). Green Paper on the Urban Environment. Brussels, EEC, 1990.
Newman P, The compact city: An Austrailian perspective. Built Environment, 1995, 21(4): 285-295.
Newman P, Kenworthy J. The land use-transport connection- an overview. Land Use Policy, 1996, 13(1): 1-22.
Kenworthy J R, Laube F B. Patterns of automobile dependence in cities: An international overview of key physical and economic dimensions with some implications for urban policy. Transportation Research Part A, 1999, 33 (7-8): 691-723.
Gordon P, Richardson H W. Are compact cities a desirable planning goal? Journal of American Planning Association, 1997, 63(1): 95-106.
De Roo G, Miller D. Compact cities and Sustainable Urban Development: A critical Assessment of Polices and Plans from an International Perspective. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2000.
Jenks M, Burgess R. Compact Cities: Sustainable Urban Forms for Developing Countries. London: Spon Press, 2000.
Chen H, Jia B, Lau S S Y. Sustainable urban form for Chinese compact cities: Challenges of a rapid urbanized economy. Habitat International, 2008, 32(1): 28-40.
Tsai Yu-hsin. Quantifying urban form: Compactness versus sprawl. Urban Studies, 2005, 42(1): 141-161.
Huang J N, Lu X X, Sellers J M. A global comparative analysis of urban form: Applying spatial metrics and remote sensing. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2007, 82: 184-197.
Burton E. The compact city: Just or just compact? A preliminary analysis. Urban Studies, 2000, 37(11): 1969- 2001.
Ewing R, Pendall R, Chen D. Measuring sprawl and its impact: Smart growth America[M/OL]. 2002-10-18 [2007-12-15].http://smartgrowthamerica.org/sprawlindex/
Kasanko M, Barredo J I, Lavalle C. Are European cities becoming dispersed? A comparative analysis of 15 European urban areas? Landscape and Urban Planning, 2006, 77(1-2): 111-130.
Burton, E. Measuring urban compactness in UK towns and cities. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 2002, 29(2): 219-250.
Lin J J, Yang A T. Does the compact-city paradigm foster sustainability? An empirical study in Taiwan. Environment and Planning B, 2006, 33(3): 365-380.
王新生, 刘纪远. 中国城市形状的时空变化. 资源科学, 2005, 27(5): 20-25.
陆大道. 2006 中国区域发展报告: 城镇化进程及空间扩张. 商务印书馆, 2007.
曹银贵, 袁春,王静. 1997-2005年区域城市土地集约度变化与影响因子分析. 地理科学进展, 2008, 27(3): 86-93.
Williams K. Urban intensification policies in England: Problems and contradictions. Land Use Policy, 1999, 16: 167-178.
刘盛和. 城市土地利用扩展的空间模式与动力机制. 地理科学进展, 2002, 21(1): 43-50.
Zadok E B. Consistency, concurrency and compact development: Three faces of growth management implementation in Florida. Urban Studies, 2005, 42(12): 2167-2190.
[1]Jenks M, Burton E, Williams K. The compact city: A sustainable urban form. London: Spon Press, 1996.
[2]Borrego C, Martiins H, Tchepel O. How urban structure can affect city sustainability from an air quality perspective. Environmental modeling & software, 2006, 2(4): 461-467.
[3]Holden E, Norland I T. Three Challenges for the compact city as a sustainable urban form: Household consumption of energy and transport in eight residential areas in the Great Oslo Region. Urban Studies, 2005, 42(12): 2145-2166.
[4]Masanobu K, Kenji D. Multiagent land-use and transport model for the policy evaluation of a compact city. Environment and planning B: Planning and design, 2005, 32 (4): 485-504.
[5]Cervero R. Efficient urbanization: economic performance and the shape of the metropolis. Urban Studies, 2001, 38 (10): 1651-1671.
[6]韩笋生, 秦波. 借鉴“紧凑城市”理念, 实现我国城市的可持续发展. 国外城市规划, 2004, 19(6): 23-27.
[7]董爽, 袁晓勐. 城市蔓延与节约型城市建设. 规划师, 2006, 22(5): 11-15.
[8]仇保兴. 紧凑度和多样性: 我国城市可持续发展的核心理念. 城市规划, 2006, 30(11): 18-24.
[9]吕斌, 祁磊. 紧凑城市理论对我国城市化的启示. 城市规划学刊, 2008(4): 61-63.
[10]陈海燕, 贾倍斯. 紧凑还是分散?对中国城市在加速城市化进程中发展方向的思考. 城市规划, 2006, 30(5): 61-69.
[11]方创琳, 祁巍锋, 宋吉涛. 中国城市群紧凑度的综合测度分析. 地理学报, 2008, 63(10): 1011-1021.
[12]Dantzig G B, Satty T L. Compact city: A plan for a liveable urban environment. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1973.
[13]Jacobs J. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House, INC., 1993: 2.
[14]Wheeler S M. The evolution of urban form in Portland and Toronto: Implications for sustainability planning. Local Environment, 2008(3): 317-336.
[15]Breheny M. Urban compaction: Feasible and acceptable? Cities, 1997, 14(4): 209-217.
[16]Bourun L S. Reurbanization, uneven urban development, and the debate on new urban forms. Urban Geography, 1996, 17(8): 690-713.
[17]Ewing R. Is Los Angeles-style sprawl desirable? Journal of the American Planning Association, 1997, 63(1): 107-126.
[18]CEC (Commission of the European Communities). Green Paper on the Urban Environment. Brussels, EEC, 1990.
[19]Newman P, The compact city: An Austrailian perspective. Built Environment, 1995, 21(4): 285-295.
[20]Newman P, Kenworthy J. The land use-transport connection- an overview. Land Use Policy, 1996, 13(1): 1-22.
[21]Kenworthy J R, Laube F B. Patterns of automobile dependence in cities: An international overview of key physical and economic dimensions with some implications for urban policy. Transportation Research Part A, 1999, 33 (7-8): 691-723.
[22]Gordon P, Richardson H W. Are compact cities a desirable planning goal? Journal of American Planning Association, 1997, 63(1): 95-106.
[23]De Roo G, Miller D. Compact cities and Sustainable Urban Development: A critical Assessment of Polices and Plans from an International Perspective. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2000.
[24]Jenks M, Burgess R. Compact Cities: Sustainable Urban Forms for Developing Countries. London: Spon Press, 2000.
[25]Chen H, Jia B, Lau S S Y. Sustainable urban form for Chinese compact cities: Challenges of a rapid urbanized economy. Habitat International, 2008, 32(1): 28-40.
[26]Tsai Yu-hsin. Quantifying urban form: Compactness versus sprawl. Urban Studies, 2005, 42(1): 141-161.
[27]Huang J N, Lu X X, Sellers J M. A global comparative analysis of urban form: Applying spatial metrics and remote sensing. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2007, 82: 184-197.
[28]Burton E. The compact city: Just or just compact? A preliminary analysis. Urban Studies, 2000, 37(11): 1969- 2001.
[29]Ewing R, Pendall R, Chen D. Measuring sprawl and its impact: Smart growth America[M/OL]. 2002-10-18 [2007-12-15].
[30]Kasanko M, Barredo J I, Lavalle C. Are European cities becoming dispersed? A comparative analysis of 15 European urban areas? Landscape and Urban Planning, 2006, 77(1-2): 111-130.
[31]Burton, E. Measuring urban compactness in UK towns and cities. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 2002, 29(2): 219-250.
[32]Lin J J, Yang A T. Does the compact-city paradigm foster sustainability? An empirical study in Taiwan. Environment and Planning B, 2006, 33(3): 365-380.
[33]王新生, 刘纪远. 中国城市形状的时空变化. 资源科学, 2005, 27(5): 20-25.
[34]陆大道. 2006 中国区域发展报告: 城镇化进程及空间扩张. 商务印书馆, 2007.
[35]曹银贵, 袁春,王静. 1997-2005年区域城市土地集约度变化与影响因子分析. 地理科学进展, 2008, 27(3): 86-93.
[36]Williams K. Urban intensification policies in England: Problems and contradictions. Land Use Policy, 1999, 16: 167-178.
[37]刘盛和. 城市土地利用扩展的空间模式与动力机制. 地理科学进展, 2002, 21(1): 43-50.
[38]Zadok E B. Consistency, concurrency and compact development: Three faces of growth management implementation in Florida. Urban Studies, 2005, 42(12): 2167-2190.
[1] 黄金川,陈守强. 中国城市群等级类型综合划分[J]. 地理科学进展, 2015, 34(3): 290-301.
[2] 陈慧, 闫业超, 岳书平, 孟冰祥, 王喜元. 中国避暑型气候的地域类型及其时空分布特征[J]. 地理科学进展, 2015, 34(2): 175-184.
[3] 李美娇, 何凡能, 肖冉. 中美巴印过去300年耕地时空变化的比较研究[J]. 地理科学进展, 2015, 34(1): 64-72.
[4] 李小妹, 严平. 中国北方地区沙漠与河流景观格局[J]. 地理科学进展, 2014, 33(9): 1198-1208.
[5] 虞虎, 陈田, 王开泳, 朱付彪, 张希月. 分权化对旅游地空间不均衡发展的影响[J]. 地理科学进展, 2014, 33(9): 1279-1288.
[6] 孙鸿烈, 陈宜瑜, 于贵瑞, 于秀波. 国际重大研究计划与中国生态系统研究展望——中国生态大讲堂百期学术演讲暨2014年春季研讨会评[J]. 地理科学进展, 2014, 33(7): 865-873.
[7] 于贵瑞, 于秀波. 近年来生态学研究热点透视——基于“中国生态大讲堂”100期主题演讲的总结[J]. 地理科学进展, 2014, 33(7): 925-930.
[8] 王淑芳, 葛岳静, 曹原, 胡浩. 中国周边地缘影响力的建模与测算——以南亚为例[J]. 地理科学进展, 2014, 33(6): 738-747.
[9] 郭超, 马玉贞, 胡彩莉, 伍永秋, 鲁瑞洁. 中国内陆区湖泊沉积所反映的全新世干湿变化[J]. 地理科学进展, 2014, 33(6): 786-798.
[10] 王慧芳, 周恺. 2003-2013年中国城市形态研究评述[J]. 地理科学进展, 2014, 33(5): 689-701.
[11] 朱凤凯, 张凤荣, 李灿, 焦鹏飞, 王静霞. 1993-2008年中国土地与人口城市化协调度及区域差异[J]. 地理科学进展, 2014, 33(5): 647-656.
[12] 丁悦, 蔡建明, 任周鹏, 杨振山. 基于地理探测器的国家级经济技术开发区经济增长率空间分异及影响因素[J]. 地理科学进展, 2014, 33(5): 657-666.
[13] 薛然尹, 葛淼, 何进伟, 胡燕宇, 谷琳琳, 杨绍芳. 组合预测模型在女性呼气高峰流量参考值地理分布研究中的应用[J]. 地理科学进展, 2014, 33(5): 636-646.
[14] 贺灿飞, 马妍. 市场分割与中国城市出口差异[J]. 地理科学进展, 2014, 33(4): 447-456.
[15] 龙冬平, 李同昇, 苗园园, 刘超, 李晓越, 孟欢欢. 中国农村人口非农化时空演变特征及影响因素[J]. 地理科学进展, 2014, 33(4): 517-530.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
版权所有 © 地理科学进展
技术支持: 北京玛格泰克科技发展有限公司