地理科学进展 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (7): 875-882.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.07.013

• 灾害风险评估 • 上一篇    下一篇

公元前1831 年-公元1980 年中国地震灾害对交通影响的时空分布及其类型

任慧子, 曹小曙   

  1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州510275
  • 收稿日期:2010-08-01 修回日期:2010-11-01 出版日期:2011-07-25 发布日期:2011-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 曹小曙,男,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事交通地理与土地利用研究。E-mail: caoxsh@mail.sysu.edu.cn E-mail:caoxsh@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:任慧子(1984-),汉族,女,博士生,研究方向为交通与历史地理。E-mail: renhuizi@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金(40571052);广东省普通高等学校人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(09JDXM84001)。

Spatial and Temporal Distributions and Types of Impacts of Earthquake Disasters on Transportation from 1831 BC to 1980 AD in China

REN Huizi, CAO Xiaoshu   

  1. Geography and Planning School of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2010-08-01 Revised:2010-11-01 Online:2011-07-25 Published:2011-07-25

摘要: 在综合整理公元前1831 年-公元1980 年中国地震灾害资料的基础上,运用GIS 技术,着重探讨了中国地震灾害的时空特征以及中国地震灾害对交通影响的空间分布与类型分析。中国地震灾害记载的时间分布不平衡,是随时间的推移而逐渐呈现上升趋势;其空间分布也不平衡,元代以前集中于山西、河南、陕西一带,明清时期西南和台湾地区有所增加,民国及1949-1980 年主要集中于西南、西北及台湾地区。中国地震灾害对交通影响的空间分布也集中于西北、西南地区,特别是云南、四川和新疆,通过地震烈度的空间分布,可知高烈度的地震对新疆的交通系统影响较大,云南和四川较低烈度的地震对其交通系统的影响也比较大,这是因为3 省皆分布于中国强震带内,且四川和云南地形复杂,多山地丘陵,其交通线的分布多沿山川行进,故较易受地震影响。然后,依据破坏程度、次生灾害、交通构筑物破坏可将地震灾害对交通的影响划分为不同的影响类型。

关键词: 地震灾害, 公元前1831年-公元1980 年, 交通, 影响类型, 中国

Abstract: Earthquake disasters have significant effects on traffic. With the development of economy and technology, the ability of people to deal with natural disasters is gradually enhanced. The vulnerability of the transportation system after earthquake disasters and the“lifeline”role that transportation system plays prompt people to pay more attention to the impacts of earthquake disasters on traffic. The research on earthquake disasters and traffic and other related issues are concentrated in earthquake engineering fields, namely from the perspective of traffic engineering construction to study the earthquake resistant behavior of the traffic system. There are relatively few studies from the perspective of human geography on the impacts of earthquake disasters on traffic based on the historical earthquake data. China has more detailed historical earthquake materials and data than any other countries in the world. China has not only a great deal of historical earthquake data, but also a large number of modern earthquake assembly data. On the basis of comprehensively coordinating the earthquake disaster data from 1831 BC to 1980 AD, and using the GIS technology, this article discusses the characteristics of China's earthquake disasters in time and space, and their influences. The earthquakes in China are imbalanced in spatial and temporal distributions. In the Yuan Dynasty, the earthquakes were concentrated in Shanxi, Henan and Shaanxi. Earthquakes in Southwest China and Taiwan increased in the Ming and Qing dynasties, and those in the Republic of China and during 1949-1980 occurred mainly in Southwest China, Northwest China and Taiwan. Traffic impacts by earthquake disasters were also concentrated in Northwest and Southwest China, especially in Yunnan, Sichuan and Xinjiang. The earthquakes with high intensities had significant influences on the transportation system of Xinjiang. And in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, the earthquakes with low intensity also had great influences on the transportation systems. That is because the three are all in the pleistoseismic zone, and Yunnan and Sichuan provinces have complex geographical environments with more mountains. Different types of impacts can be divided according to the extent of damage, secondary disasters and ruin of transportation structures.

Key words: China, earthquake disaster, from 1831 BC to 1980 AD, influenced types, transportation