地理科学进展 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (3): 313-318.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.03.008

• 气候变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

长白山北坡岳桦林线变动的水热条件分析

王晓东, 刘惠清   

  1. 东北师范大学城市与环境科学学院,长春130024
  • 收稿日期:2010-10-01 修回日期:2011-01-01 出版日期:2011-03-25 发布日期:2011-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 刘惠清,女,教授,博士生导师。E-mail:liuhq595@nenu.edu.cn E-mail:liuhq595@nenu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:王晓东(1971-),男,博士生,研究方向为自然地理学。E-mail:wangxd219@nenu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40871005)。

Water and Heat Changes of Betula ermanii Treeline on Northern Slope of Changbai Mountains

WANG Xiaodong, LIU Huiqing   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Notrheast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
  • Received:2010-10-01 Revised:2011-01-01 Online:2011-03-25 Published:2011-03-25

摘要: 近50 年来长白山北坡林线种群呈现明显的扩张态势。为揭示林线变动机制,本文以长白山天池气象站的气象数据(1953-2007 年)为基础,结合野外的气温观测,以温暖指数(WI)及湿润指数(HI)为生态气候指标,以16℃·月和68.8 mm/℃·月为阈值,通过数据保证率的计算推测55 年来长白山北坡岳桦林线的水热条件变化。结果表明:以WIHI 指标确定的林线位置分别在1975 ~ 2460 m和1584 ~ 2231 m。WI 与HI 变化对林线高度变动影响的交互作用不显著(p>0.05),WIHI 变化呈显著负相关(p<0.01),两种林线变化也呈负相关(r=-0.11<0),交互作用和相关分析结果显示水热条件的不同步变化使岳桦林线上侵不能达到各自的潜在高度,林线位置波动在1975 ~ 2231 m。林线上缘波动的复杂程度高于下缘,波动幅度与胁迫力的大小呈正相关。

关键词: 长白山北坡, 林线上侵, 生态气候指标, 数据保证率

Abstract: The treeline of Betula ermanii population had an obviously expanding trend on the northern slope of the Changbai Mountains in recent 50 years. In order to examine the changing mechanism of treeline, in this study, based on the data from Tianchi meteorological station (2624 m altitude) regarded as a referencing site (1953-2007) and the air temperature field measurement, using two eco-climatic preferences which were warmth index (WI) and humid index (HI), the ecotone boundary between Betula ermanii and tundra on the northern slope of the Changbai Mountains was determined by assurance ratio. The results were calculated by using the thresholds at 16 ℃·month and 68.8 mm/℃·month, and they showed that the two treelines were at 1975-2460 m and 1584-2231 m respectively. The interaction influence of WI and HI changes on treeline was not significant (p>0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between WI and HI change (p<0.01). In addition, there was a negative correlation between two treelines changes (r = -0.11<0). The results of correlation and interaction analysis indicated that the two treelines were unable to reach their potential height due to the asynchronous changes of heat and water. Therefore, the range of Betula ermanii treeline was estimated to be 1975-2231 m. The wavelike rise in Betula ermanii treeline (slope was positive, R2 <0.8) was discussed by trend and wavelet analyses. The fluctuation process was simple in lower treeline (the characteristic of catastrophe point). However, the complex fluctuation process in upper treeline indicated that fluctuation of treeline shift increased owing to large stresses.

Key words: assurance ratio, eco-climatic preferences, northern slope of Changbai Mountains, treeline shift