地理科学进展 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (2): 186-197.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.02.008

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京市制造业和服务业空间组织特征与类型

孟晓晨, 王滔, 王家莹   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-01 修回日期:2010-07-01 出版日期:2011-02-25 发布日期:2011-02-25
  • 作者简介:孟晓晨(1955-),女,哈尔滨人,博士,副教授,主要从事经济地理与城市经济研究。E-mail: xcm@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40871076)。

Spatial Organization of Manufacturing and Service Industries: A Case Study of Beijing

MENG Xiaochen, WANG Tao, WANG Jiaying   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2010-01-01 Revised:2010-07-01 Online:2011-02-25 Published:2011-02-25

摘要: 产业在城市内部的空间组织形式是形成城市内部空间结构的主导力量。要认识城市内部空间结构的形成机制和合理地进行城市功能区规划,都离不开对城市内部产业空间组织规律的了解与掌握。产业的空间组织形式是各种集聚与分散力量综合作用达到平衡时的结果。鉴于现有研究尚未系统探讨产业空间组织的不同特征与类型,本文利用2001年北京市基本单位普查的资料,从产业集中度和地理集聚度2个维度,对北京市的两位数制造业和服务业的空间组织形式进行了特征分析与类型分类,归纳总结出寡占—集聚型、寡占—分散型、领先—集聚型、领先—分散型、竞争—集聚型以及竞争—分散型6种空间组织类型,并简单探讨了其形成因素,最后比较分析了制造业和服务业在空间组织形式上的共性和差异。

关键词: 北京市, 产业空间组织, 地理集聚度, 行业集中度

Abstract: The spatial organization of industries is the main force in shaping the urban spatial structure and is the result of balance between forces of agglomeration and dispersion. With the knowledge of spatial organization of urban industries, the underlying mechanism of the evolution of the urban spatial structure can be better understood, and proper urban planning or zoning can be achieved. However, the characteristics of the spatial organization of industries have not been discussed in depth. This paper aimed at the classification and characteristics of the industrial spatial organization in cities with two considerations: industrial concentration and geographical agglomeration. Industrial concentration reveals the extent to which the market of industries is competitive, which in a way contributes to the geographical concentration of industries. Geographical agglomeration is attributable to the external economies of scale which is the main force for the formation of industrial clusters. In methodology, this paper measures industrial concentration by Herfindal-Herschman index (HHI), which provides a complete picture of industrial concentration by calculating the sum of squared employment shares. Geographical agglomeration is measured by MS index based on the probabilistic model of location choice developed by Maurel and Sedillot. The study case is Beijing which is divided into 1049 geographical units (4 km ×4 km) for spatial research. With the economic census data of Beijing in 2001, this paper examines the patterns of spatial organization of industries by analyzing two aforementioned dimensions. This paper classifies 29 2-digit manufacturing industries and 40 2-digit service industries into 6 patterns of oli-cluster, oli-disperse, leading-cluster, leading-disperse, competing-cluster and competing-disperse. The oli-cluster pattern features oligopolistic market and geographical agglomeration. The oli-disperse pattern features oligopolistic market and geographical dispersion. The leading-cluster pattern features less competitive market and geographical agglomeration. The leading-disperse pattern features less competitive market and geographical dispersion. The competing-cluster pattern features competitive market and geographical agglomeration. The competing-disperse pattern features competitive market and geographical dispersion. Sample industries from every pattern are analyzed, and factors responsible for each pattern are discussed in short. Finally, a comparison between manufacturing industries and service industries was made regarding patterns of spatial organization, and the findings include that manufacturing industries and service industries have similar structure of industrial concentration while a larger proportion of manufacturing industries is geographically dispersed compared to service industries. Moreover, the mean values of HHI from manufacturing industries across three classifications types are close to that from service industries while the mean values of MS index from manufacturing industries across two classification types are significantly higher than that from service industries.

Key words: Beijing, geographical agglomeration, industrial concentration, spatial organization of industries