地理科学进展 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (1): 121-128.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.01.015

• 生态环境 • 上一篇    

良渚时期文化发展与海平面变化

朱丽东, 冯义雄, 叶玮, 王天阳, 李凤全, 李黎霞   

  1. 浙江师范大学地理过程实验室, 金华321004
  • 收稿日期:2010-03-01 修回日期:2010-07-01 出版日期:2011-01-25 发布日期:2011-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 朱丽东(1965-),女,浙江新昌人, 教授, 博士, 主要从事环境变化研究。E-mail:fengyixiong52@126.com E-mail:fengyixiong52@126.com
  • 作者简介:冯义雄(1986-),男,四川苍溪人,硕士研究生,从事古文化与环境变化研究。E-mail: fengyixiong52@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41071002);浙江省自然科学基金项目(Y5080307)。

Culture Development and Sea-Level Change during Liangzhu Period

ZHU Lidong, FENG Yixiong, YEWei, WANG Tianyang, LI Fengquan, LI Lixia   

  1. Geography Process Lab, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, Zhejiang, China
  • Received:2010-03-01 Revised:2010-07-01 Online:2011-01-25 Published:2011-01-25

摘要: 浙沪苏地区良渚考古资料和海平面变化研究表明,良渚文化的兴、盛、衰与5.5-4 ka B.P.期间海平面升降密切关联。5.5-4.9 ka B.P.,浙沪苏地区海平面处于高海面之后的急剧下降期,降幅约3.9 m,陆地生存空间扩大,加之气候温暖,良渚文化开始兴起,良渚人择高地而居,盛行干栏式建筑,遗址分布相对分散,从事稻作农业生产。4.9-4.3 ka B.P.,浙沪苏地区进入低海面时期,良渚文化发展达到鼎盛,遗址数量增多,分布相对集中,并向外围地区扩展。此时气候干凉,水井大量出现、盛行地面建筑、稻作农业和手工业发展,社会等级分化,揭示出低海面促进了良渚文化的繁荣。4.3-4 ka B.P.,海平面回升,渐渐进入又一高海面时期,良渚先民生存空间缩小,文化分布范围相对压缩,且以台墩和坡地建筑为主,遗址数量较中期减少,海面回升的同时,洪涝灾害,异常降温等灾变加速了良渚文化的衰落。总体来讲,5.3-4.0 ka B.P.期间“海面下降-低海面-海面回升”的过程推动了良渚文化由兴起到繁盛再到衰落的演替过程。

关键词: 海平面变化, 沪浙苏地区, 良渚文化, 全新世

Abstract: The comparison of archaeological records with that of sea-level changes in the Zhejiang-Shanghai-Jiangsu region shows that there is a close connection between the Liangzhu culture development and sea-level changes during 5.5-4 ka BP. During 5.5-4.9 ka BP, the sea-level of the Zhejiang-Shanghai-Jiangsu area declined by about 3.9 m, providing more space for humankind. Together with warm climate, the space boosted the initial development of Liangzhu culture. The sparse archaeological sites with stilt houses were mostly found on the higher land and the people at that time were engaged in rice planting. During 4.9-4.3 ka BP, the sea level was low and Liangzhu culture was in a period of peak prosperity. The amount of archaeological sites increased significantly, of which the distribution was centralized and in a much larger area. The climate was dry-cool then, and lots of wells were found. People built their houses on land surface. The agriculture and handicraft industries had been developed, and different classes emerged in the society. These indicate that the low sea-level greatly accelerated the prosperity of Liangzhu culture. In 4.3-4 ka BP, the sea level rose again, which reduced the Liangzhu people’s living space, thus relatively narrowed the distribution extent of the culture. In addition, it resulted in fatal floods during the cold event at about 4 ka B.P. People mainly lived in platforms and slope fields. The number of sites was reduced and the environment was worse because of the rising sea-level. As a result, the sea-level changes during 5.3-4.0 ka BP had a significant influence on the Liangzhu culture development.

Key words: Holocene, Liangzhu culture, sea-level change, Zhejiang-Shanghai-Jiangsu region