地理科学进展 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (1): 95-102.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.01.012

• 地表过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

岔巴沟、大理河与无定河水土保持减水减沙作用的尺度效应

綦俊谕1,2, 蔡强国1, 蔡乐3, 孙莉英1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京100049;
    3. 北京市水文总站, 北京100089
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-01 修回日期:2010-05-01 出版日期:2011-01-25 发布日期:2011-01-25
  • 作者简介:綦俊谕(1984-),男,硕士研究生。主要研究方向为水土保持。E-mail:qijunyu2009@yahoo.com.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点基础研究发展计划(973)项目(2007CB407207);国家基金委员会重点基金项目(40635027)。

Scale Effect of Runoff and Sediment Reduction Effects of Soil and Water Conservation Measures in Chabagou, Dalihe and Wudinghe Basins

QI Junyu1,2, CAI Qiangguo1, CAI Le3, SUN Liying1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory ofWater Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Beijing Hydrological Station, Beijing 100089, China
  • Received:2010-01-01 Revised:2010-05-01 Online:2011-01-25 Published:2011-01-25

摘要: 运用经验公式法、双累积曲线法和不同系列对比法计算出岔巴沟、大理河与无定河流域在20 世纪70 年代水土保持综合措施的平均减水效益分别为14.47%、20.22%和20.78%,平均减沙效益为64.97%、43.62%和47.26%。对计算结果进行分析发现,用3 种方法对岔巴沟、大理河与无定河流域水土保持综合措施减水减沙效益的计算结果之间的关系没有尺度效应。引进“减水效率”和“减沙效率”的概念来表示水土保持措施减水减沙作用的能力,然后通过对3 个流域水土保持综合措施减水效率和减沙效率的分析发现:①无论是小流域还是中、大流域,水土保持综合措施减沙效率都大于减水效率,小流域的减沙减水效率比大于中、大流域的减沙减水效率比,尺度效应明显,后两者减沙减水效率比都各自趋于一致,尺度效应不明显;②小流域水土保持综合措施减水效率要低于中、大流域的减水效率,而小流域水土保持综合措施减沙效率远高于中、大流域的减沙效率,尺度效应明显,中、大流域减水减沙效率都各自趋于一致,尺度效应亦不明显。

关键词: 减沙效率, 减沙效益, 减水效率, 减水效益, 水土保持措施, 水文法

Abstract: The study of runoff and sediment reduction benefits of soil and water conservation measures has been improved at different scales separately; however, there are relatively few studies on the scale effect of runoff and sediment reduction benefits of soil and water conservation measures in basins of different scales. In this study for Chabagou, Dalihe and Wudinghe basins, runoff and sediment reduction benefits of soil and water conservation measures in the 1970s are calculated by three methods: rainfall-runoff and rainfall-sediment statistical model (R-RSM), double accumulative curve method (DACM) and time series contrasting method (TSCM) accordingly. As a result, average runoff reduction benefits are 14.47%, 20.22% and 20.78% respectively and average sediment reduction benefits are 64.97%, 43.62% and 47.26% respectively. The results show that there is no scale effect in the results from the three methods when they are applied separately to calculate runoff and sediment reduction benefits in basins of three scales. Runoff reduction efficiency (RRE) and sediment reduction efficiency (SRE) indicating the“efficiency”of the runoff and sediment reduction benefits are introduced, and after analyzing the relationship between runoff reduction efficiency and sediment reduction efficiency of basins of three scales, several conclusions are obtained. (1) Sediment reduction efficiency is always greater than runoff reduction efficiency in basins of three scales, however, the ratio of sediment reduction efficiency to runoff reduction efficiency of small scale basin is greater than that of middle and large scale basins and there is no scale effect of the ratio between middle and large scale basins. (2) Sediment reduction efficiency of small scale basin is lower than that of middle and large scale basins, while runoff reduction efficiency of small scale basin is greater, and runoff reduction efficiency and sediment reduction efficiency of middle and large scale basins are so close that there is no scale effect.

Key words: rainfall-runoff and rainfall-sediment statistical model, runoff reduction benefits, runoff reduction efficiency, sediment reduction benefits, sediment reduction efficiency, soil and water conservation measures