地理科学进展 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (1): 35-41.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2011.01.004

• 研究综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市地表温度热岛影响因素研究进展

谢苗苗1, 王仰麟2, 付梅臣1   

  1. 1. 中国地质大学北京土地科学技术学院, 北京 100083;
    2. 北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2010-06-01 修回日期:2011-10-01 出版日期:2011-01-25 发布日期:2011-01-25
  • 作者简介:谢苗苗(1982-),女,博士后,主要研究方向为景观生态与土地利用。E-mail: xmiaomiao@gmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目(40635028,40930101);国土资源部公益性行业科研专项(200811110)。

An Overview and Perspective about Causative Factors of Surface Urban Heat Island Effects

XIE Miaomiao1, WANG Yanglin2, FU Meichen1   

  1. 1. School of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China;
    2. College of Urban and Environment Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2010-06-01 Revised:2011-10-01 Online:2011-01-25 Published:2011-01-25

摘要: 城市地表温度热岛是城市生态环境效应研究的热点之一,其影响因素研究为缓解城市热岛带来的负效应、促进城市可持续发展提供依据。本文系统回顾了国内外关于城市地表温度热岛影响因素的研究进展。首先结合热岛效应表征的地表能量过程,基于景观生态学格局-过程理论,从地表能量吸收释放、转换及传输3种过程中归纳热岛效应的影响机理,分别对应地表覆盖、人为活动和景观格局特征3方面影响因素;其次,从影响因素的3个方面分析了近年来的研究进展,并比较了国内外地表温度热岛综合影响因素研究领域的异同;最后探讨了研究进展与热岛效应影响机理研究的差距,提出利用多源数据深化城市热岛效应的机理性与综合影响因素研究,以期为制定热岛效应缓解策略有所启示。

关键词: 地表能量过程, 地表温度热岛, 景观生态, 影响因素

Abstract: Urban heat island (UHI) is a hotspot in the study about urban ecological and environmental effects. UHI effects are caused by multiple factors, and the synthesized mechanism study can supply a foundation to release the negative effects of UHI. This study proposes a theory framework for causative factors of surface urban heat island (SUHI) by analyzing the process of surface energy on the basis of landscape ecology. Since surface temperature represents the process of surface energy, we examine the causative factors of this process, which includes energy absorption/emission, energy translation, and energy transmission. The internal and external progresses on each kind of causative factors are reviewed in this study. We also compare the internal studies on synthesized mechanism of SUHI with external studies. By the comparison of progresses of causative factor studies and the mechanism of SUHI, we deduce the prospect on this field.
The energy absorption and emission of surface represent the ability to absorb solar short-wave radiation, and the capacity to emit earth’s surface long-wave radiation, which are controlled by the physical properties of land surface. The studies on this theme focus on land use and biophysical properties. It has reached a consensus on the functions of land use/land cover. The biophysical properties can better describe the relationship between surface characteristics and temperature with higher accuracy. The physical properties of the surface include vegetation, impervious surface, and surface moisture, which are represented by land cover indices derived from remote sensed data including NDVI, ISA, NDBI, NDMI, etc. Energy translation is the process of translating one form of energy into another, which, in this case, is surface heat determined by the intensity of human activities. Population density, energy consumption intensity, and automobile flux are normal indices to depict the intensity of human activities. However, the studies in this field are limited by the spatial resolution of social-economic data. Energy transmission represents the energy flow between different patches referring to the temperature gradient, which primarily depends on the spatial relationship between landscape patches. Two themes in this field have been developed. One is the relationship between temporal heterogeneity of landscape patterns and surface temperature changes. The other is the influence of spatial characteristics of landscape patches on surface temperature. In the field of synthesized causative factors, the external study focuses on the triangle model of temperature, vegetation, and soil moisture. Most of the internal analyses are about the statistical model consisted of land cover and social-economic components.
There are two tendencies of the relating studies in the future. Firstly, high resolution data and field survey data will promote the study on the analysis of energy translation and transmission. Secondly, following a description of energy process, we can involve social-economic indicators and landscape patterns in the triangle mechanism model to establish the systemized mechanism of SUHI.

Key words: causative factors, landscape ecology, surface urban heat island, the process of surface energy