地理科学进展 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (11): 1311-1318.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.11.008

• 气候与水文过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

岩溶流域水文模型研究进展

蒙海花, 王腊春   

  1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京210093
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-01 修回日期:2010-07-01 出版日期:2010-11-25 发布日期:2010-11-25
  • 通讯作者: 王腊春,男,教授,博士生导师,主要从事水文水资源研究 E-mail:haihuameng@gmail.com; wang6312@263.net.cn
  • 作者简介:蒙海花(1983-)|女|山西朔州人|博士研究生|主要从事水文水资源研究
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40571024)

Advance in Karst Hydrological Model

MENG Haihua,WANG Lachun   

  1. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
  • Received:2010-01-01 Revised:2010-07-01 Online:2010-11-25 Published:2010-11-25

摘要:

岩溶地区含水介质结构的多重性和岩溶地貌形态的高度复杂性,使岩溶系统的水文效应和水资源的评价与预测一直都成为水文研究的重点和难点。在岩溶含水介质特点和岩溶水文形成过程的基础上,本文着重评述了黑箱模型、概念性模型、物理性模型和分布式水文模型在岩溶水文模拟中的应用。其中黑箱模型包括基于核函数的算法、回归模型、人工神经网络和小波分析;概念性模型包括蓄泄模型和流量过程线衰减函数;物理性模型主要包括达西定律、Darcy-Weisbach 方程、有限元法和等效连续多孔介质;分布式水文模型主要是SWMM模型,并分别对各类模型的概念、方法、应用效果以及存在的优缺点等进行了分析。最后指出了研究中存在的一些不足,并就岩溶流域水文模拟的进一步研究提出了相应的建议,这对于解决岩溶区的水资源可持续利用问题有重要意义。

关键词: 水文模型, 岩溶流域, 展望

Abstract:

The aquifer system of karst has features of complexity and multiplicity, and the researches on karst hydrological effects and water resources forecast are difficult. A number of models have been developed in the karst areas to simulate surface runoff, underground dynamics and transfers between them since the 1960s, which include black-box models, conceptual models and physical models. Each type can address specific issues in the field of simulating runoff, and meanwhile, has its own drawbacks and limits. (1) Blank-box models, including kernel function, regression equation, stochastic models, artificial neural network and wavelet theory, are often well adapted to decipher their overall behavior, but they have the disadvantage of not providing any understanding of the physical mechanisms of the aquifer and lacking predictive power. (2) Conceptual models are based on simplified physical interpretation of the processes of transforming input to output, including reservoir models and multiple exponential recessional response elements. In general, the molders of this category are ideal in modeling cases with insufficient data, but they cannot apply localized information for water level fluctuation. (3) Physical models are considered to be those which can simulate both diffuse flow in the matrix and the flow in the pipes, these models require very good knowledge of the aquifer systems and they have too many parameters need to be calibrated. At present, in terms of spatial/temporal complexity, data scarcity and physical aquifer properties, a variety of common issues still trouble karst hydrological modelers. The tendencies of future karst hydrological models mainly manifest themselves in the following aspects: addressing problems in terms of physical features of hydrologic behavior and nonlinearity of karst aquifers, studying karst water cycle, analyzing the characteristics and regional differentiation of all storage forms, applying new technology, methods and distributed models to define quantitatively and precisely the distribution of subsurface drainage, developing hydrological models which can be applied to many karst areas, establishing optimum parameters database, and incorporating the eco-hydrology response and water resources assessment in hydrological models.

Key words: hydrological model, karst basin, research progress