地理科学进展 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (7): 789-796.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.07.003

• 生态环境与灾害管理 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京湿地景观监测与动态演变

顾丽1, 王新杰1, 龚直文2, 付尧1, 刘俊1   

  1. 1. 北京林业大学省部共建森林培育与保护教育部重点实验室, 北京100083|
    2. 北京林业大学农林经济管理博士后科研流动站
  • 收稿日期:2009-01-01 修回日期:2010-01-01 出版日期:2010-07-25 发布日期:2010-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 王新杰,男,副教授。主要研究方向为遥感技术在资源环境中的应用。 E-mail:xinjiew@bjfu.edu.com.cn. E-mail:xinjiew@bjfu.edu.com.cn
  • 作者简介:顾丽,女,博士。主要研究方向为遥感技术在资源环境中的应用。E-mail:guli_bj@126.com.
  • 基金资助:

    北京市教育委员会共建项目建设计划 (JD100220648)。

Landscape Monitoring and Dynamic Evolution of Wetland Resources in Beijing

GU Li1, WANG Xinjie1, GONG Zhiwen2, FU Yao1, LIU Jun1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083|China|
    2. Post-Doctoral Science Research Station of Agriculture and Forestry of Economics and Management, Beijing 100083|China
  • Received:2009-01-01 Revised:2010-01-01 Online:2010-07-25 Published:2010-07-25

摘要:

湿地是地表最重要的景观覆盖类型和生态系统,具有巨大的资源潜力和环境功能。长期以来,由于人类活动影响造成湿地景观的巨大变化,不仅改变了湿地景观原有的功能,而且对湿地环境产生重要影响。本文以北京湿地为研究区域,将马尔科夫过程模型引入到湿地景观格局分析和预测中,采用遥感和GIS相结合的方法,利用1996、2001与2005年Landsat TM影像为信息源,分析了北京湿地景观格局演变过程。研究结果标明:北京地区的湿地资源面积呈现显著退化趋势,湿地面积由1996年的62869.64 hm2减少到2005年的31416.31 hm2;北京湿地斑块趋向于不规则,破碎化程度增强导致湿地易消退,湿地功能难以发挥;在现有的人类作用强度的情况下,北京湿地景观格局可达到一个相对稳定的状态,即天然河流达到10.93%,人工水域占99.17%。研究结果为北京湿地的可持续发展与科学管理提供了依据。

关键词: 北京, 动态演替, 景观格局, 马尔科夫过程, 湿地资源

Abstract:

Wetland, considered as the natural ecosystem and landscape, has great resource potentiality and environmental function. For a long time, the change of wetland landscape pattern has been affected by human activities, which has changed the existing wetland functions, and exerted influence on wetland environment. This paper, took the capital city of Beijing as a case for the study of wetland areas, and used Markov model to analyze the dynamic change and the trend of evolution. Supported by RS and GIS technology, combining the previous researches and numerous field investigations, this paper used Landsat TM images of 1996, 2001 and 2005 as the information source to analysis the process of dynamic evolution. The results showed that Beijing wetland recources were degraded significantly. The area of wetland dropped from 62869.64 hm2 in 1996 to 31416.31 hm2 in 2005. The patches of wetlands tended to be irregular, and the degree of fragmentation was increasing. The transition probability matrices at two primary states (1996 and 2005) were established. Then, the development and the future tendency of wetland landscape patterns were simulated and forecasted with Markov process. Under the existing human effects, Beijing wetland landscape pattern may achieve a relative stable state, in which natural rivers make up 10.93% and artificial waters account for 99.17%. The findings have provided the basis for the sustainable development and the scientific management of Beijing's wetlands.

Key words: Beijing, dynamic evolution, landscape pattern, Marcov model, wetland resource