地理科学进展 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (7): 771-777.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.07.001

• 生态环境与灾害管理 •    下一篇

中国地震灾害风险管理

温家洪1, Jianping Yan2, 尹占娥1, 孟庆洁1, 叶欣梁1,3   

  1. 1. 上海师范大学地理系, 上海 200234|
    2. Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, UNDP, Geneva,Switzerland|
    3. 上海工程技术大学工商管理系,上海 201620
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-01 修回日期:2010-05-01 出版日期:2010-07-25 发布日期:2010-07-25
  • 通讯作者: Jianping Yan,男,理学博士,教授,联合国开发署危机预防与恢复局减灾组高级风险咨询专家,主要从事综合风险建模与评估、风险评价方法和公共领域的灾难风险管控研究。E-mail: jianping.yan@gmail.com. E-mail:jianping.yan@gmail.com
  • 作者简介:温家洪,男,博士,教授/博导,主要从事灾害风险分析与公共安全、遥感与GIS应用研究。E-mail: jhwen@shnu.edu.cn.
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金重点项目(40471028),上海市重点学科建设项目(S03406),上海市科委创新行动计划项目。 (08240514000)。

Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management in China

WEN Jiahong1, YAN Jianping2, YIN Zhan'e1, MENG Qingjie1, YIE Xinliang1,3   

  1. 1. Department of Geography, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China|
    2. Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, UNDP, Geneva, Switzerland|
    3. Department of Business Administration, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China
  • Received:2010-01-01 Revised:2010-05-01 Online:2010-07-25 Published:2010-07-25

摘要:

从地震灾害的本质与灾害风险管理角度,结合国际灾害风险管理经验,评述汶川地震灾难中暴露出来的中国地震灾难风险管理的一些问题,指出过度强调或依赖地震预报,长于救灾而弱于防灾与减灾,使得中国难以降低地震灾难的严重程度。通过分析自然灾害风险管理的内涵、国际主流风险管理框架(IRGC、ERM、TDRM、GTZ),指出综合灾难风险管理是全面减灾最为有效、积极的手段与途径,中国在自然灾难管理中迫切需要实施综合风险管理。

关键词: 风险评估, 汶川地震灾难, 中国, 自然灾害, 综合灾难风险管理

Abstract:

This paper aims to explore the importance of natural disaster risk management to significantly reduce the impacts of disasters in China. Lessons learnt from the Wenchuan earthquake disaster, a catastrophic disaster that rarely occurred in China’s history, have shown that earthquake forecasting or prediction is a misconception in earthquake disaster reduction because it can not greatly help reduce the impacts of disasters. Therefore, it is high time for our country to shift its conception of disaster management from hazard forecasting or prediction to risk management, an effective and efficient way to reduce the impacts of disasters, in terms of the international progresses in disaster management theory and practices. The essential ways and measures to mitigate the seriousness of earthquake disasters in China include improvement of risk analysis and assessment of earthquake disasters, reduction of exposure and vulnerability in high risk areas through structural and non-structural measures, strict implementation of the building code for seismic design to insure the quality of buildings, especially for the critical facilities, establishment of modern systems of earthquake risk transfer, and enhancement of the national and local capacities to cope with disasters.

Key words: China, integrated disaster risk management, natural hazard, risk assessment, Wenchuan earthquake disaster