地理科学进展 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (3): 292-300.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.03.006

• 土地利用变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

伊犁河中下游近40年土地利用与覆被变化

朱磊1,2|罗格平1|陈曦1|许文强1|冯异星1,2|郑青华1,2|王继燕1,2|周德成1,2|尹昌应1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所|乌鲁木齐 830011;2. 中国科学院研究生院|北京 100049
  • 出版日期:2010-03-25 发布日期:2010-03-25
  • 通讯作者: 罗格平,博士,研究员,博导,主要从事土地利用/土地覆被变化、地理信息系统和遥感应用研究。 E-mail:luogp@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:朱磊(1982- )|男|新疆库尔勒人|博士生。主要从事土地利用/土地覆被变化、地理信息系统和遥感应用研究。E-mail: smartzhulei04@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院重要方向项目(KZCX2-YW-307-03)

Detection of Land Use/Land Cover Change in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Ili River, 1970-2007

ZHU Lei1,2, LUO Geping1, CHEN Xi1, XU Wenqiang1, FENG Yixing1,2, ZHENG Qinghua1,2, WANG Jiyan1,2, ZHOU Decheng1,2, YIN Changying1,2   

  1. 1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China|
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Online:2010-03-25 Published:2010-03-25

摘要:

针对跨界流域土地利用/覆被变化(LUCC)信息十分有限,无法满足对环境变化评估需要的现状,本文以跨界流域——哈萨克斯坦境内伊犁河中下游为研究区,利用20世纪70年代的MSS、90年代的TM、2000年和2007年的ETM卫星遥感影像,采用目视解译与决策树相结合的分类方法,可较高精度提取研究区LUCC的时空信息,通过一套数理统计模型,定量分析了区域LUCC的过程和趋势。近40年来,高覆盖度林草地、中覆盖度林草地和耕地始终是伊犁河中下游地区所占比例最大的3种土地利用/覆被类型。整个研究时段内,耕地、水库坑塘和未利用地先增加后减少,其中耕地总体呈现减少的趋势,但减少幅度逐渐减小,水库坑塘和未利用地面积总体趋于增加。高覆盖度林草地和河流呈现出持续减少的态势,而建设用地面积持续增加。中覆盖度林草地、湖泊和沼泽先增加后减少,总体呈现增加趋势。低覆盖度林草地经历了减少—增加—减少的变化过程,总体呈现减少趋势。耕地和林草地相互转换频繁,其中耕地与高覆盖度林草地之间的转换和高、中覆盖度林草地之间的转换为区域内最主要的四种变化类型。1970-2007年间,伊犁河中下游地区土地利用始终处于准平衡状态,但有向不平衡状态发展的趋势。20世纪70年代卡普恰盖水库的建立和90年代初期的政策变化改变了原有变化的随机性和平稳性,使区域内相关土地利用/覆被发生显著变化。

关键词: 伊犁河中下游;土地利用/覆被变化;遥感;过程和趋势

Abstract:

Land use/land cover change (LUCC) information is usually limited in the transboundary river basin. It is unable to meet the needs for environmental assessment. Central Asia is the most fragile ecological area in the world. As the largest import river supply to Balkhash Lake, Ili River plays a significant role on regional environment. In this study we took a case of the middle and lower reaches of the Ili River, which is bordered with Xinjiang, China, to analyse the process and trend of LUCC at a regional scale quantitatively. Based on MSS images in the 1970s, TM images in the 1990s, and ETM images in the 2000s and 2007, spatial data about land use/land cover were obtained in this study with the combination of visual interpretation and the decision tree classification module. Because of the lack of the large scale reference data (e.g. aerial photographs or topographic maps) and field survey, we assessed the classification accuracy with higher revolution images on Google Earth Pro?誖. Then the characteristics of LUCC were quantified by the way of process and trend models. The results showed that densely covered woodlands and grasslands, moderately covered woodlands and grasslands and cultivated lands always accounted for the largest areal proportion in the middle and lower reaches of the Ili River in the past four decades. The area of moderately covered woodlands and grasslands, lakes, reservoirs, swamps, construction lands and unused lands increased considerably, with only a slight increase of swamps. The area of cultivated lands, densely covered woodlands and grasslands, sparsely covered woodlands and grasslands and river decreased slightly. The major LUCC categories were the swamps between cultivated lands and densely covered woodlands and grasslands as well as the swamps between densely covered woodlands and grasslands and moderately covered woodlands and grasslands. The area of cultivated lands was influenced significantly by policies. Although the land use/land cover still at the quasi-balanced status in the entire period, a trend of imbalanced status was appeared. Natural and anthropogenic driving forces effected LUCC of the middle and lower reaches of the Ili River as a whole. The construction of Kapchagay Reservoir in the 1970s and the institutional reform in the early 1990s changed the randomness and stability of LUCC, and made the regional land use/land cover change more obvious.

Key words: land use/land cover change, process and trend, remote sensing, the middle and lower reaches of the Ili River