地理科学进展 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 45-51.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2010.01.006

• 生态与环境变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

血吸虫病医学地理研究的回顾与展望

赵安|蒋梅鑫|简敏菲|倪才英   

  1. 江西师范大学|南昌 330022
  • 出版日期:2010-01-25 发布日期:2010-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 赵安(1963-),男,江西南昌人,教授,博士,主要从事地理学、GIS&RS、生态环境与公共卫生等领域研究。 E-mail:zhaoan@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40861021)、国家社会科学基金“十一五”2008年度教育学一般课题(BLA080064)

Progress and Prospects of Schistosomiasis-medical Geography

ZHAO An, JIANG Meixin, JIAN Minfei, NI Caiying   

  1. Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, China
  • Online:2010-01-25 Published:2010-01-25

摘要:

医学地理研究由来已久,但地理学界血吸虫病医学地理研究相对薄弱,而且多是非地理专业人员在从事相应工作。本文首先从血吸虫病流行传播的机理出发,分析了血吸虫病医学地理的主要研究内容,认为钉螺滋生地与血吸虫病疫情的监测和预测是血吸虫病医学地理研究的主要内容;其次系统总结了气象气候因子、土壤植被因子、地貌高程因子、水文水力因子、人文经济因子对血吸虫生命史及其宿主的影响,并视其为血吸虫病医学地理研究的基础;然后回顾了近年国际、国内运用遥感、GIS技术和统计学方法(包括地统计学方法)进行钉螺滋生地与血吸虫病疫情确定的主要研究手段,归纳了7类钉螺滋生地预测方法和5类血吸虫病疫情预测方法;最后剖析了目前血吸虫病医学地理研究面临的主要挑战和未来血吸虫病医学地理研究努力方向。

关键词: 血吸虫病医学地理;地理环境因子影响;遥感/GIS应用;挑战与前景

Abstract:

Medical geography has a long research history, nonetheless schistosomiasis-medical geography is relatively laggard in the field of Geography, where a lot of study was made by non-geographical professionals. This paper first studied the basic connotation and the principal contents of Schistosomiasis-medical Geography according to the mechanism of schistosomiasis transmission. Monitoring and prediction of snail habitats and schistosomiasis epidemicity were regarded as the principal study contents of Schistosomiasis-medical Geography. Second, connection of geographical factor pairs of meteorology and climatology, soil and vegetation, geomorphology and altitude, hydrology and hydraulics, human and economic factor with the shistosome and its hosts were systematically summarized, which was deemed as the foundation of Schistosomiasis-medical Geography. Third, the key research means for determination and prediction of snail habitats and schistosomiasis epidemicity by remote sensing, GIS and statistics (including geo-statistics) were reviewed worldwide, 7 kinds of prediction methods for snail habitats and 5 kinds of prediction methods for schistosomiasis epidemicity were concluded. 7 kinds of prediction methods for snail habitats were interpretation and cartography of snail habitats, meteorologically based method, images-retrieved information based method, unsupervised classification based method, dynamic monitoring of snail habitats in periods of floods, relation between geographic factors and snail habitats based method, and knowledge driven fuzzy-classification method. 5 kinds of prediction methods for schistosomiasis epidemicity were cartography and spatial auto-relation analysis, schistosomiasis transmission index modeling at large scale, quantitative modeling of various life phases of shistosoma and their hosts, regressive relational analysis and Bayesian modeling between epidemicity and geographic factors, and relation study between epidemicity, snail habitats and contact index of infected waters. Finally this paper analyzed the main challenges and endeavor directions for Schistosomiasis-medical Geography in the future.

Key words: GIS, challenges and prospects, schistosomiasis medical-geography, impacts of geographical factors, application of remote sensing &