地理科学进展 ›› 2009, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (5): 825-832.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.05.022

• 生态与环境变化 • 上一篇    

自然湿地水质净化研究进展

姚鑫1, 2, 3|杨桂山1, 3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008; 2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049;
    3. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008
  • 出版日期:2009-09-25 发布日期:2009-09-25
  • 作者简介:姚鑫(1982-)|江苏兴化人|博士研究生|主要研究资源利用与湿地保护。 E-mail: anklestone@sohu.com
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所知识创新工程所长专项基金(CXNIGLAS2006-06)

Progress on the Study of Water Purification Ability of Natural Wetlands

YAO Xin1,2,3, YANG Guishan1,3   

  1. 1.Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China|
     2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049|China;  3. State Key Laboratory of Lake Science
     and Environment,Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
  • Online:2009-09-25 Published:2009-09-25

摘要:

自然湿地应用于水质净化具有重要的生态、经济价值,近年来得到了广泛的重视。对于引起水体富营养化的主要污染物质氮、磷,湿地去除它们的机理主要在于土壤、微生物、植物的相互协同作用,同时自然湿地的面积、结构、分布位置等条件对湿地的去污效果产生一定的影响。3种不同类别自然湿地——岸坡湿地、河流湿地以及泥沼湿地的水质净化研究进展各具特色,相互之间既有共同点,也有较大差异,共同点主要在于去污机理研究方面,而差异之处则源自彼此的研究历史及湿地特征。自然湿地水质净化研究今后可能的发展方向包括边界区影响研究、退化湿地水质净化功能恢复、流域尺度可持续发展规划和驱动因素作用下水质净化功能动态研究等方面。

关键词: 自然湿地;水质净化;湿地类型

Abstract:

As the kidney of the earth, natural wetlands play an important role in water purification, and guarantee a healthy drinking water supply for rural areas. As a result, utilizing natural wetlands for mitigating non-point source water pollution has attracted more and more worldwide attention in the past decades. The mechanisms of the retention of nitrogen and phosphorus, both of which are considered substantial to water eutrophication, are mainly due to the cooperative functions of wetland sediment, plants and microbes. The detailed processes of pollutant removal involve sedimentation, dissolution, biological adsorption, and biochemical reactions mediated by microbes, such as nitrification, denitrification, etc. The water purifying efficiencies of natural wetlands have great differences between each other, by reason of the different wetland characteristics, which include wetland area, wetland spatial structure, wetland location, loading time of water purifying, precipitation and temperature, etc. However, results drawn by different scientists  from research work at different wetlands varied between each other. Natural wetlands have many types, three of which, named riparian wetlands, river wetlands and peatlands, have been most widely used in water purification. The reason is that: first, they are the most widely distributed wetlands around the world; second, they satisfied the demand for socio-economic development. Each type of the three had respective research progress in both mechanisms and applications of pollutant removal, and the progress in one type usually differed quite a lot from that of the others, as a result of different research histories and varied characteristics of sub-disciplines.
The potential aspects to be attached importance in the future of the research on natural wetland purification ability are as follows: the physical and chemical processes in wetlands boundary and their impacts on water purification ability; restoration of degraded wetlands and the recovery of their water purification ability; continuable programming of wetland water purifying on catchment scale; and dynamic impacts of wetland changes driven by natural and human factors.

Key words: natural wetlands;water purification;wetland type