地理科学进展 ›› 2009, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (5): 814-824.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.05.021

• 生态与环境变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆绿洲系统自组织演化与机理

穆艾塔尔·赛地1|瓦哈甫·哈力克1|2   

  1. 1. 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院|乌鲁木齐 830046; |2. 新疆大学绿洲生态重点实验室|乌鲁木齐 |830046
  • 出版日期:2009-09-25 发布日期:2009-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 瓦哈甫·哈力克(1967-)男,维族,新疆哈密人,教授,博士(后)。研究方向:干旱区资源与环境。 E-mail:hwahap@xju.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:穆艾塔尔·赛地(1984-)女|维族|在读硕士研究生。研究方向:干旱区资源与环境。E-mail:hwahap@xju.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40761021);2007年度人事部留学人员择优重点项目;新疆大学绿洲生态重点实验室项目(XJDX0201-2007-02)

A Study on Self-organization of Oasis System: A Case of Xinjiang Oasis System

Muattar SAYDI1, Wahap HALIK1,   

  1. 1. College of Resource and Environment Science,Xinjiang University,Urumqi 830046, China;
    2. Lab for Oasis Ecosystem of Xinjiang University,Urumqi 830046, China
  • Online:2009-09-25 Published:2009-09-25

摘要:

应用自组织理论为指导思想,从绿洲的系统性、整体性、复杂性角度出发,以新疆为例进行实证分析,深入研究绿洲系统的发展特征与演化机制。分析结果表明:{1}自组织理论在解释绿洲复杂系统的发生、发展、演化过程方面是一种非常强大而有效的理论依据;{2}绿洲系统的发展是由干旱环境背景下的特殊自然地理要素的自发演化所构成的自组织与由人为进行的规划与干预所构成的他组织的复合发展过程;{3})绿洲系统具有开放性、非平衡性、非线性、涨落等明显的自组织特征,有着从非组织到组织、从组织程度低到组织程度高、复杂度不断增长等自组织演化过程;{4})绿洲系统中自组织与他组织的相互影响机制决定着绿洲系统运行态势及其特征。新疆绿洲系统发展的特征分析充分揭示并验证了绿洲系统的自组织与他组织特征与演化过程,充实了绿洲研究的理论体系及其内容,为提高我们对绿洲发展规律的认识、科学实施他组织、有效长期的组织绿洲,为正确引导绿洲系统发展过程与方向提供了科学的理论依据。

关键词: 自组织;绿洲;绿洲系统;他组织

Abstract:

Self-organization is a process where the organization of a system spontaneously increases without being controlled by the external system. As a new worldview for human to understand the universe and things, self-organization can be a very good explanation for the evolving process of complex systems. Constructed by numbers of sub-system and complex non-linear correlation between them, oasis system belongs to a typical self-organizing system. This paper analyzes the characteristics and evolving process of oasis system by applying self-organization theory through the case study from Xinjiang oasis system. The characteristics and working mechanisms of both the self-organizing and other-organizing process have been introduced to analyze the evolving process while putting the focus on self-organization. Results indicate that oasis system has the obvious features of self-organizing system such as being open, non-balanced, non-linear and fluctuation. Self-organizing process in oasis system spontaneously takes place by three steps, from non-organization to organization, from low level of organization to high level organization and constant increment of complexity. These three process manifested respectively in the spontaneous formation of oasis in a proper environment, proliferation and atrophy of oasis scale and evolution of oasis function and structure. Evolution of oasis system is a compound and complex process which is constructed by the self-organization based on natural factors and other-organization implemented by human activities. The operational status and characteristics of oasis system at a certain time period depends on the relationship and interacting mechanism between self-organization and other-organization. They have three types of possible influence. Firstly, the development of oasis system can be increased to a great degree with the assistance of other organization measures during the process of self-organization. In this case, oasis system will tend to reinforce itself, but close attention must be paid in order to avoid causing some negative feedbacks. Secondly, when self-organization and other-organization deviated from each other, it will break down the intrinsic order in oasis system and oasis system will develop to the direction of disorder and destruction. Finally, the harmonious and synchronous development of self-organization and other-organization can make oasis system play its best function and keep the trend of healthy and sustainable development. Some typical examples from the Xinjiang oasis system have been given correspondingly to support the theoretical analysis. This study can provide scientific basis for understanding the oasis system from the point of view of self-organization, implementing other-organizing process scientifically and organizing oasis system in a more effective way and on a long-term basis.

Key words: oasis, oasis system, other-organization, self-organization