地理科学进展 ›› 2009, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (4): 558-566.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.04.011

• 水土与地表过程 • 上一篇    下一篇

河流输送泥沙和颗粒态生源要素通量研究进展

李新艳1,2|王芳1|杨丽标1|晏维金1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所|北京 100101; 2. 中国科学院研究生院|北京 100049
  • 出版日期:2009-07-25 发布日期:2009-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 晏维金 E-mail:yanwj@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:李新艳(1978-)|女|山东省泰安市人|博士生|研究方向为生源要素环境与生物地球化学过程。 E-mail:li992004@yahoo.com.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(20777073);联合国教科文组织(UNESCO)项目“全球营养盐输出和模型”(Global NEWS)

Research Progress in River Transport of Sediments and Associated Particulate Nutrients

LI Xinyan1,2, WANG Fang1,YANG Libiao1,YAN Weijin1   

  1. 1.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Online:2009-07-25 Published:2009-07-25

摘要:

河流中的泥沙是河流向河口和近海水域输送营养盐的重要载体,N、P、C、Si等营养盐是组成生命的最基本生源要素。按照形态组成,可将营养盐划分为溶解态和颗粒态两类,因此,从方法学上,对河流输送泥沙通量的估算是研究河流输送颗粒态营养盐通量的基本前提。本文从元素生物地球化学循环的角度,对国内外河流输送泥沙和颗粒态营养盐通量的研究进展进行了综述。国内外的研究表明: 20世纪50-90年代,估算的全球河流入海泥沙通量变化范围为8.8~64 Pg/yr(1 Pg=1012 kg),这一时期的研究重点是探讨自然因素对于河流输送颗粒态物质通量的影响;20世纪末-21世纪初,估算的全球河流的入海泥沙通量变化范围在11~27 Pg/yr之间,这一时期除重视自然因素外,还特别关注人类活动对于河流输送物质通量及其未来趋势变化的影响。很多研究报道了基于全球尺度上的河流输送泥沙通量和颗粒态营养盐通量模型,并据此估算出全球河流每年向海洋输送的POC、PN和PP总量分别达170~210 Tg、21~30 Tg和9~20 Tg(1 Tg=109 kg)。但将这些模型应用于某个特定流域还要进行进一步校正和检验。

关键词: 泥沙;颗粒态生源要素;人类活动;河流;输送通量

Abstract:

Sediment (also called total suspended solid) river loads and associated particulate nutrients (POC, PN and PP, etc.) greatly influence the ecology and biogeochemistry of estuary and coastal marine environment, leading to water eutrophication. River transport of particulate nutrients is important from regional and global biogeochemical perspective, as POC, PN and PP constitute major portions of C, N and P transported from land to sea. In this paper, the authors summarize progress in river transport of sediments and particulate nutrients in both global and regional scales. In methodology, the study on estimates of particulate nutrients is based on the river sediment load. During the 1950s-1990s, most researches were focused on the impacts of natural processes on the transport of sediments in rivers, and the global river sediment load to the sea was estimated to vary between 8.8 and 64 Pg yr-1. But at present, more attention is paid to the impacts of human activities, and the estimates of global river sediment load to the sea ranged from 11 to 27 Pg yr-1. For the models of river sediment and particulate nutrients reported, most of them were built on global scale. The global river export of POC, PN and PP varied between 170-210 Tg yr-1, 21-30 Tg yr-1 and 9-20 Tg yr-1, respectively. Further calibration and test would be required for these global models to be applied in a specific basin.

Key words: export, human activity, particulate nutrients, river, sediments