地理科学进展 ›› 2009, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (4): 537-545.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.04.008

• 产业发展与区域经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国钢铁工业空间格局的演化及影响机制

田山川1, 2|张文忠1   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;2.中国科学院研究生院|北京 100049
  • 出版日期:2009-07-25 发布日期:2009-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 张文忠 E-mail:zhangwz@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:田山川(1983-)|男|研究生。研究方向为产业结构和区域发展。E-mail:tiansc.06s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目群(KZCX2-YW-Q06);国家自然科学基金重点项目(40635026)

Evolution of Spatial Pattern of Chinese Iron and Steel Industry and the Influencing Factors

TIAN Shanchuan1|2| ZHANG Wenzhong1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China; |
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Online:2009-07-25 Published:2009-07-25

摘要:

钢铁工业作为基础性原材料工业,对国家或地区的经济社会发展有巨大的支撑作用。工业化和城市化进程会反作用于钢铁工业,促进其持续发展。由于中国不同地区的经济社会发展阶段不同,钢铁工业的空间格局因而呈现出分异。通过计算1985-2006年的钢产量的变异系数,探讨中国钢铁工业空间格局由集中转向扩散然后再次集聚的演化特征。20世纪70年代-80年代早期,中国钢铁工业主要集聚于辽宁、上海和湖北等少数省市;1985-2002年间,中国钢铁工业的空间分布逐渐向华北和华东地区扩散,钢铁工业的非均衡化发展态势有所缓和;2002年以后,这一空间格局逆转为向沿海地区特别是长三角和环渤海两大经济区集聚,中国钢铁工业的非均衡化发展态势再次加剧。其次,通过考察钢铁工业的产业集中度,在企业视角下考察中国钢铁工业空间格局的演化。最后,探讨了引导中国钢铁工业空间格局演化的影响机制,分析了市场需求、投资、原材料以及企业发展战略等因素在这一演化过程中的作用。

关键词: 钢铁工业;空间格局;集聚;变异系数;产业集中度;中国

Abstract:

Since 1996, China has ranked the first place in producing crude steel. As iron and steel industry in China has been rapidly developing, its spatial pattern has evolved a lot. In the early 1980s, when China launched the Reform and Opening-up policy, the majority of iron and steel industry concentrated in few provinces such as Liaoning, Shanghai and Hubei, displaying an unbalanced spatial pattern. During the years of 1985-2002, Chinese iron and steel industry spread to North China and East China, because industrialization and urbanization developed rapidly in these regions. However, the spatial pattern of Chinese iron and steel industry turned back to the unbalanced state after 2002, because more and more steel production capacity concentrated in the coastal areas, especially in the Bohai-Rim and the Yangtze River Delta. By calculating the Coefficient of Variation(Cv), the evolution of spatial pattern of Chinese iron and steel industry can be demonstrated. In addition, changes of concentration ratio can be used to investigate the evolution of spatial pattern on an enterprise scale. This paper analyzes the factors which have affected the evolution of spatial pattern. In different periods of time, factors exerted different influences. Domestic supply of iron ore once determined the spatial pattern of Chinese iron and steel industry from the founding of P.R.China to the late 1970s. In the last 20 years of the 20th century, due to rapid industrialization and urbanization, large demand for steel products led to the spatial pattern to spread in China. In the context of globalization, overseas market and iron ore supply are playing a more and more important role in affecting the spatial pattern of Chinese iron and steel industry. In conclusion, domestic and global factors, such as market demand, investment, raw materials, and policies, have influenced the spatial pattern of Chinese iron and steel industry. As a result, it tended to be concentrated in the coastal areas.

Key words: coefficient of variation; concentration ratio;China, concentration, iron and steel industry, spatial pattern