地理科学进展 ›› 2009, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (4): 511-518.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2009.04.005

• 产业发展与区域经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市空间相互作用理论模型的演进与机理

闫卫阳1,2|王发曾1|秦耀辰1   

  1. 1. 河南大学 环境与规划学院|开封 475004; 2. 河南大学 中澳地理信息分析与应用研究所|开封 475004
  • 出版日期:2009-07-25 发布日期:2009-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 闫卫阳(1968-),男,博士后,副教授,中国地理学会会员。研究方向为城市地理学、地理信息系统理论与应用。 E-mail:yanwy9991@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40771065);国家科技支撑计划项目(2006BAJ05A14)

Analysis of the Principle and Evolvement of the Theoretic Models of Urban Spatial Interaction

YAN Weiyang1,2| WANG Fazeng1| QIN Yaochen1   

  1. 1. College of Environment and Planning| Henan University| Kaifeng 475004| China|
    2. Institute of Sino-Australia Geographic Information Analysis and Applications| Henan University| Kaifeng 475004| China
  • Online:2009-07-25 Published:2009-07-25

摘要:

城市空间相互作用理论是城市地理学的重要基础理论。由于城市空间相互作用模型发端于西方,我国这方面的研究相对较晚,主要是引进和实证,在理论研究上还有待深入。本文分析了几种主要城市空间相互作用理论模型的机制和原理,考虑到断裂点模型应用较广,经过了较多的实践验证,重点探讨了该模型的缺陷、演进和扩展形式,从理论上论证了将空间分割原理和断裂点模型结合的扩展模型的科学性和合理性。对城市空间相互作用理论模型的研究,不仅可以为城市规划、城市影响空间和城市经济区的划分以及行政区划调整提供理论基础,而且对物流分析、设施选址、市场影响力的分析等也具有重要的指导作用。从分析城市空间相互作用理论模型演进的过程中还可以得到深刻的启发:地理学以复杂的自然、人文现象为研究对象,是一门边缘学科,又是一门实践性很强的学科。地理学应积极借鉴其他学科最新的理论、技术与方法是十分必要的,是推动其自身发展的关键所在。

关键词: 城市;空间相互作用;Voronoi图;理论模型

Abstract:

The theory of urban spatial interaction is an important basic theory in urban geography. For the theoretic models come from occident, our country correspondingly lags and research mainly on there demonstration, more research should be done in theory. This paper analyzes the principle of the noted theoretic models of urban spatial interaction. Considering breaking-point model has been applied widely and verified in practice. Its limitation, evolvement and expanded form were principally studied.Reily put forward Law of Gravitation on Zero-Sale in 1931 according to Newton’s Law of Gravitation. Converse expanded the theory, brought forward Breaking Point Theory and gave the computational formula in 1949. Because the theory just gives only one breaking point between two cities, many methods for partitioning space are used, for instance, making vertical line through the breaking point on the linked line between the two nearby cities and linking the nearby breaking points with smooth lines. In fact, , these are not feasible and not rigorous. Other conventional theoretic models of urban international action, including Gravitation Model and Potential Model, also have obvious limitations.
  Although geographical boundary is usually fuzzy and uncertain, it is still valuable in theory and actual application if we can find an advantageous and correct method for delimiting the urban abstracted regions. Considering Voronoi diagram’s geometric particularities, the rationality for dividing up space and the solvability by computer, some researchers tried to apply it in expanding and validating classical Breaking Point Theory. The method of compartmentalizing urban influential space based on ordinary Voronoi diagram ignores urban compositive strength, and the method based on weighted Voronoi diagram doesn’t take the geographical principle into account. The scientific meaning and rationality is demonstrated in theory about integrating breaking-point model and Voronoi diagram. The expanded breaking points model shows that in a well-proportioned plane, the boundary between two city’s abstracted regions is the vertical bisector of the connected line with them if the cities’ weights are equal; the boundary is an arc if the weights are not equal; the orbit of all the breaking points in the plane forms ordinary Voronoi diagram and weighted Voronoi diagram accordingly; and each city’s weight equals to the square root of its central strength value in the second situation.
  Apocalypses can be received from analyzing the principle and evolvement of the theoretic models of urban spatial interaction, which geography is an intersecting and practicing subject which sets the complicated natural and human phenomenon as studying objects, it is necessary that geography should use the new theories, techniques and methods for reference, which is the keys for developing itself.

Key words: city, spatial interaction, theoretic model, Voronoi diagram