地理科学进展 ›› 2008, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (3): 19-28.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2008.03.004

• 生态与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

Eco- immigr ation Policy for the Degr aded Rangeland and Responses of Herd Family in the Sour ce Region of Yellow River——Case Study Based on Household Investigation in Maduo County

LU Qingshui1,ZHAO Zhiping2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101;
    2. Graduate College of Chinese Academy of Sciences 100049
  • 收稿日期:2008-01-01 修回日期:2008-04-01 出版日期:2008-05-25 发布日期:2008-05-25
  • 作者简介:Qingshui Lu (1972-), born in Yucheng County, Shandong Province, Ph.d Candidate of Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
  • 基金资助:

    This paper is supported by Key Technology of Ecological Supervision and Assessments for Ecology Recovery in China( 2006BAC08B00), Program- Ecological and Functional Zone Planning, Western China Activities of Chinese Academy of Sciences(KZCX2- XB2- 06- 03).

黄河源区应对草地退化的生态移民政策以及牧户响应分析———基于玛多县的牧户调查

芦清水1, 赵志平2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院, 北京100049
  • Received:2008-01-01 Revised:2008-04-01 Online:2008-05-25 Published:2008-05-25

摘要:

Under the integrated influences of global climate changes and overgrazing, China rangeland has degraded over recent years. Maduo County locates in the Source Region of Yellow River and its rangeland has experienced expansive degradation. The government of Qinghai Province launched an eco- immigration policy in 2004. In order to analyze the responses of herd families to the eco- immigration and the reasons for these responses, the authors used three periods MSS and TM images for recent 25 years and interview survey data of 144 herd families in recent two years, getting the following results: (1) the rangeland had degraded extensively for recent 28 years; and (2) the immigrant families were mainly composed of the old, with little or no livestock. What's more, the percentage of immigrant households that share one rangeland certificate with parents or brothers in the immigrant family was 54.5%. Therefore, it is hard to greatly decrease the overgrazing degree through eco- immigration with those previous characteristics of eco- immigrant family structure.

关键词: eco- immigration, grazing pressure, rangeland degradation, responses of herd family

Abstract:

在全球气候变化和人类干扰的综合作用下,中国草地出现大范围的退化,退化的草 地造成了严重的生态问题。玛多县位于青海省三江源区的黄河源区,草地也出现了严重退化, 因此,青海省政府于2004 年在该地区实行了生态移民政策。为了分析牧户对生态移民的响应 差异,作者从牧户角度, 通过牧户调查, 遥感数据、自然要素和社会经济要素综合分析, 研究 生态移民政策和牧户的响应情况及原因, 对以后的人地和谐共处具有借鉴作用。本文利用近 25 年的三期MSS 和TM影像、两年的PRA 牧户访谈共144 户的资料,通过综合分析,得出以 下结果: (1)草地退化主要是由气候干暖化和草地载畜超载造成的。(2) 移民政策和牧户社会经 济情况的对比利益差异,导致移出的牧户以老年牧户、无畜/少畜户为主,牲畜多的、中青年牧 户普遍不愿移民。而且,移民户中,一证多户中的部分户移民占所有移民户54.5%。移民牧户 结构的上述特征导致通过移民实现草地载畜量明显减少的目标不易实现。

Key words: 草地退化, 放牧压力, 牧户响应, 生态移民