地理科学进展 ›› 2007, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (4): 44-50.doi: 10.11820/dlkxjz.2007.04.007

• 生态与环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

城市NOx 人体健康风险评估的GIS 应用研究

廖永丰1,2, 王五一1, 张莉1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101|
    2. 国家减灾中心, 北京100053
  • 收稿日期:2007-05-01 修回日期:2007-05-01 出版日期:2007-07-25 发布日期:2007-07-25
  • 作者简介:廖永丰(1974-), 男, 甘肃人, 博士.主要从事环境健康研究.E-mail:liaoyongfeng@ndrcc.gov.cn
  • 基金资助:

    科技部国际合作重点项目资助.

GIS- based Study on Urban NOx Induced Health Risk Assessment

LIAO Yongfeng1,2, WANG Wuyi1, ZHANG Li1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing100101|
    2. National Disaster Reduction Center of China, Beijing 100053
  • Received:2007-05-01 Revised:2007-05-01 Online:2007-07-25 Published:2007-07-25

摘要:

城市大气污染是人类目前及未来面临的主要健康威胁之一, 而随着交通的发展NOx 对 人体健康的影响越来越受到重视。基于GIS 技术进行健康风险评估的研究是目前城市环境健康 问题研究的热点。论文采用环境健康风险评估的基本框架( 浓度、暴露、剂量、效应4 个环节) , 应 用GIS 栅格数据模型和域面分析技术构建城市空气质量健康风险空间量化评估模型, 模拟了主 要大气污染物NOx 的剂量—效应函数关系; 并根据污染物的分布进行城市局地尺度NOx 健康风 险评估。

关键词: GIS, NOx 健康风险评估, 城市, 大气污染

Abstract:

Abstract: Urban air pollution has become a major threat to human health now, and it seems that this situation will be worsening in the future. In particular, NOx pollution, which often causes many severe diseases, by urban transportation has been becoming a worse environment problem with the urbanization and has come to focus in both developing countries and developed ones. GIS- based study on urban air quality simulation and heath risk assessment come to a case in point in the world. This paper adopts GIS raster and surface analysis tools to build a spatial health risk assessment model on the basis of the present popular health- risk- assessment basic framework, which includes concentration, exposure, dose and effect. The model have made great advance in two ways of quantitatively assessing health effect and assessing air quality on urban local scale. The dose- effect function of pollutant toxicology is applied to quantitatively analyze the health effect, which succeeds in solving uncertainty problem confronting health effect assessment. In order to simulating pollutant exposure on the local urban scales, micro- environment study method is adopted to build exposure model including urban population distribution simulation and population time- activity pattern analysis. The study brings an effectively approach to assessing urban air quality. Finally, this paper simulates the NOx exposure distribution, classifies health risk and calculates risk population in a south- eastern coastal city of Fuzhou, China. The result shows that the study has practicability in assessing urban health risk of urban air quality.

Key words: Air pollution, GIS, Health- risk assessment from Nox, Urban